- We have already studied the Nominal Sentence الـجــُــمــلــة الاســمــيـــة . Today, we are going to study the second type of the Arabic Sentences which is the Verbal Sentence الــجــمــلــة الــفــعــلــيـــة .
- Simply speaking, the verbal sentence in the Arabic language is the sentence that starts with a verb فـِــعـــْـــل . It consists of a verb followed by the subject or doer فــاعــِـــل of the verb followed by the object مـَـــفــعـــُـــول بـــِــه .
- The sentence in the picture above is a verbal one. It starts with the past verb كـــَـــتـــَــــبَ (wrote). Now, who wrote? Muhammad is the subject or doer فــاعــِـــل of the action. He (Muhammad) is the one or the person who wrote. So, Muhammad wrote, but wrote what? He (Muhammad) wrote the lesson الــدَّرسَ . Hence, the lesson is the object الــمــَــفـــعــــُـــول . It is the thing that received the action. The action (writing) happened to the lesson.
- A verbal sentence can be in the present tense زمــن الــمــُــضـــارع if its verb is in the present tense.
Ex. – يــشــربُ مــُــحــَــمــّــــدٌ الــمــَــاءَ
= Muhammad drinks (is drinking) (the) water.
- A verbal sentence can be in the imperative mood صــيــغــة الأمــر if it starts with an imperative verb فـعــل أمــر
Ex. – اِقـــْـــرَأ (أنــتَ) الــكــِـــتـــَــــابَ = Read (you) the book.
- A verbal sentence can be in the passive voice صــيــغـــة الـمــبــنــى لـلــمــَــجــهـــُـــول if its verb is a passive verb فــعــل مـَــبــنــى لـلــمــجــهـــول
Ex. – كــُـــتــِـــبَ الــدَّرسُ = The lesson was written.
- A verbal sentence can have more than one object depending on the type of the verb.
Ex. – أعــطــى الـمــُــعــَـــلــِّــــمُ عــَــلـِــيــّــاً جــَــائــِــزةً
= The teacher gave Ali a present.
- A verbal sentence can have no object at all if its verb is intransitive.
Ex. – نـــَـــامَ الـــطـــِـــفـــْـــــلُ = The baby slept.
- A verbal sentence can contain other components such as الـحـــَــال / الـتــمــيــيــز / الـمــفــعـــول لأجــلــه / الـمــفــعـــول الــمـُــطــلــــق etc.
(We will discuss each component of the verbal sentence in more detail later on.)
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Peace ســـــلام /Salam/