In a previous post, we were introduced to Inna and Sisters. We have known that they are particles حــُــروف . One sister of Inna is Anna. The difference between the two sisters is the first letter which is the Hamza ( ء ) . The Hamza in the first word إنَّ has a Kasrah كَــســْـــرة underneath while the Hamza in the second word أنَّ has a Fat’ha above it. There is no difference in meaning between the two particles but the difference is in the usage. When should we use Inna? and when should we use Anna? That is the topic of our post today.
* Use Inna إنَّ with a Kasrah in these cases :
1) At the beginning of speech (to start a sentence)
Ex. – إنَّ العدلَ أساسُ الحكمِ الصالحِ
= Indeed (Inna) justice is the base of good rule.
2) After the verb ( to say يقول ) to refer to anything said in a direct sentence.
Ex. – الرجلُ قال : “إنَّ مصلحةَ الجماعةِ فوق مصلحةِ الفردِ .”
- The man said, “(Inna), the good of the whole is above the good of the individual.”
3) After the Oath القــَــســَــم at the start of the oath answer sentence
Ex. – و اللهِ إنَّ الإيمانَ قوةٌ = By Allah, (Inna) faith is strength.
4) At the start of the adverbial clause جملة الحال
Ex. - رأيــتـــُــهُ و إنــَّــهُ يـَــركــبُ الطائرةَ
= I saw him (wa Innahu) getting on the plane.
5) At the beginning of the Sila Sentence جـمــلة الصــِّــلة
Ex. – أعطيته من الكتبِ ما إنَّ فوائدهُ لا تنتهي
= I gave him books whose benefits never end.
* Use Anna أنَّ with a Fat’ha in this case :
Anna is used with a Fat’ha if it and its two agents; (Ism and Khabar), can be replaced by a Masdar.
Ex. 1- ســَــرَّنــِــي أنــَّــكَ نــجــحــتَ
= I was pleased that you (Anna’ka) succeeded.
2- ســَــرَّنــِــي نــَــجــَــاحــُــك َ
= I was pleased with your success.
The above examples 1 & 2 are equal in meaning;
Anna ( أنَّ ) + Kaaf ( ك َ ) of Address + the verb succeeded ( نجحتَ )
= the noun/Masdar; success ( نجاحُ ) + Kaaf ( ك َ ) of Address.
However, in example 1, the whole Anna sentence; (Anna + its Ism + Its Khabar), is parsed or analyzed as a subject فــاعـِــل of the verb سـَــرَّنــِــي and if the Masdar is used as in example 2, it is also parsed or analyzed as a subject فــاعـِــل of the verb سـَــرَّنــِــي . To sum up, if the Masdar is used, it is parsed or analyzed according to its position in the sentence.
(Note: We will study the Masdar in more detail later on)
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Peace ســَـــلام /Salam/