Primary Suffix in Hindi

Posted on 23. Jul, 2012 by in Hindi Language

Suffix (प्रत्यय – Pratyaya) are very important elements of Hindi grammar. Many Hindi words can be created using suitable suffix. The majority of Hindi words are created by the combination of a nouns or word derived from verbs and suffix.

For example, the word “खिलौना” (Khilona - Toy) is a combination of noun “खेल” (Khel - Play/Game/Match) and suffix “औना” (aana). As you can see, an interesting noun came into existence when a noun and suffix is combined.

In this post, I would like to discuss the primary suffix in Hindi. These are called कृत प्रत्यय (Krit Pratyaya) in Hindi. These suffix when added to a root of the word, forms a noun or adjective.

There are 5 different kinds of primary suffix in Hindi. These are:

1. कृत्तवाचक कृत प्रत्यय (Karttavaachak) – Subject Suffix 

These suffix indicates the subject of the verb.

Suffix Word Root Example Word
अक्कड़ (akkad) भूल (bhul) भुलक्कड़ (Bhulakkad – one who forgets)
ऊ (u) कमा (kamaa) कमाऊ (Kamaau – one who earns)
इया (iyaa) घट (ghat) घटिया (Ghatiya – Bad)
वाला (vaala) पड़ (pad) पड़नेवाला (Padnevaala – one who reads)
आऊ (aau) टिक (tikau) टिकाऊ (Tikaau – Durable)
हार (haar) होना (hona) होनहार (Honhaar – Promising)
दार (daar) लेन (len) लेनदार (Lendar – Creditor)
आलु (aalu) दया (Daya – Mercy) दयालु (Dayaalu – Kind)

2. कर्मवाचक (Karmavaachak) कृत प्रत्यय – Objective Suffix

These suffix indicates the object of the verb.

Suffix Word Root Example Word
औना (aauna) खेल (Khel – Game) खिलौना (Khilauna – Toy)
नी (ni) चट (chat) चटनी (Chatani – Sauce)
ना (na) खा (kha) खाना (Khaana – Food, verb. to eat)

3. भाववाचक (Bhaavavaachak) कृत प्रत्यय –  Abstract Suffix

These suffix forms abstract nouns.

Suffix Word Root Example Word
आन (aan) उड़ (ud) उड़ान (Udaan)
आई (aai) लिख (likh) लिखाई (Likhai – Writing)
इया (iyaa) सज (saj) सजावट (Sajaavat – Decoration)
ई (ee) बोल (Bol) बोली (Boli – Language)
आहट (aahat) घबरा (Ghabra) घबराट (Ghabraat – Nervousness)
आव (aav) बह (bah) बहाव (Bahaav – Flow)
औती (aauti) कट (kat) कटौती (Katauti – Deduction)

4. करणवाचक (Karanavaachak) कृत प्रत्यय – Instrument Suffix

These suffix indicates the instrument with which the action has been done.

Suffix Word Root Example Word
ई (ee) खेत (Khet) खेती (Kheti – Farming)
ना (naa) ढक (Dhak) ढकना (Dhakna – verb. to cover)

5. संस्कृत प्रत्यय – Suffix from Sanskrit 

As the name suggest, these suffix are from Sanskrit.

Suffix Word Root Example Word
य (ya) पे (Pe) पेय (Peya – Drink)
व्य (vya) श्रे(Sre) श्रेय (Sheya – Credit)

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About Nitin Kumar

Nitin Kumar is a native Hindi speaker from New Delhi, India. His education qualification include Masters in Robotics and Bachelors in Mechanical Engineering.Currently, He is works in the Research and Development in Robotics in Germany. He is avid language learner with varied level of proficiency in English, German, Spanish and Chinese, Japanese and Russian. He wish to learn French one day. His passion for languages motivated him to share his mother tongue, Hindi, and culture and traditions associated with it. He has been working with Transparent Language in 2010 and since then has written over 350 blogs on various topics on India, its culture, Hindi language and traditions. He is also the Administrator for Hindi Facebook page which has a community of over 330,000 members.

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