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Learning Latin Basics: Lesson II

Posted on 10. Dec, 2014 by in Latin Language

Salvete Omnes,

We have much to cover today! We are going to review the 1st and 2nd Conjugations and Declensions along with some sentence work.



1st Conjugation “Amo= I love”

1st s.= amo  “ I love, I do love, I am loving”

2nd s.= amas “You love”

3rd s.= amat “He loves, She love, It loves”

1st pl.=amamus “We love”

2nd pl.=amatis “You (plural) love)”

3rd pl.=amant “ They love”

  • One indicator of a 1st conjugation verb is the before the stem (which is underlined) there is usually an “a” in other forms. However, there is just an “o” ending in the 1st s. form.

2nd Conjugation “Habeo= I have”

1st s.= habeo “I have”

2nd s.= habes “You have”

3rd s.= habet “He has, She has, It has”

1st pl.= habemus “We have”

2nd pl.= habetis “You (plural) have”

3rd pl. =habent “They have”

  • As with the 1st conjugation and the “a” indicator, the 2nd conjugation will have an “e” in its 1st s. form.

Conjugate Exercise:

  1. Celo (1st conjugation)
  2. Timeo (2nd conjugation)
  3. Porto(1st conjugation)
  4. Habeo(2nd conjugation)
  5. Sum (Irregular Cojugation)**

**If you have already forgotten how to conjugate sum, take a look at last week’s post!



Nouns in Latin, unlike in English, change depending on the role in a sentence. By change, I mean, that the endings on the noun will change to either a nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative (or vocative and locative- which aren’t used as much).


1st Declension is the declension to refer to nouns that “decline” to the following forms; which are usually feminine (99% of the time):

aqua, –ae water f. (feminine)
Singular Plural
Nominative aqua –a aquae –ae
Accusative aquam –am aquās –ās
Genitive aquae –ae aquārum –ārum
Dative aquae –ae aquīs –īs
Ablative aquā –ā aquīs –īs

If you noticed that most of endings have an “a” in them. [Sorta reminds you of the 1st conjugation verbs with the “a” stem.]

2nd Declension is the declension to refer to nouns that “decline” to the following forms; which are usually masculine (99% of the time):

dominus, –ī master m. (masculine)
Singular Plural
Nominative dominus –us dominī –ī
Accusative dominum –um dominōs –ōs
Genitive dominī –ī dominōrum –ōrum
Dative dominō –ō dominīs –īs
Ablative dominō –ō dominīs –īs


Notes on Declensions:

If you noticed that the endings do not have a common vowel, but in comparison to the 1st Declension- it is similar except for the “a” being replaced” with “u” in the singular, “o” in the plural and “ae” [mostly] replaced with “i.”

Please do not be thrown off or worried that the dative and ablative plural in the 1st and 2nd declension are the same. It is important simply to familiarize yourself with these forms.


Also did you notice that when these nouns were written out; they looked like: “dominus, -i” and “ aqua, -ae?” This is to show the Nominative singular form and then the ending to the Genitive singular form. This will assist in providing which declension a noun is since (“-us & -i” endings are clearly 2nd declension while “-a & -ae” are clearly 1st declension).


Nominative & Accusative:

The nominative case is used for the subject in a sentence. The accusative is the direct object of the sentence:

I love cats. I= nominative, love= verb, cats= accusative.

Are you following so far? Let’s look at some Latin.



Filia, -ae =daughter             timeo= I am afraid, I fear             voco= I call

Serua, -ae= slave-woman     et= and                                    aula, -ae=pot

Seruus, -i= slave-man        ego= I                                      thesaurus, -i= treasure

Coquus,-i=cook                 tu= you                                            amo= I love

te= you (accusative)           me=me                                   habeo= I have


  1. filiam coqui vocat.
  2. The slave-women are afraid.
  3. thesauros ego amat.
  4. Seruas et Seruos Filae habent.
  5. You have a pot.
  6. serua timet seruos.
  7. The cook loves the female-slave.
  8. ego et tu habent aulas.
  9. The daughter calls you and me.
  10. filia amat seruum, et seruum amat seruam.





  1. The cooks call the daughter
  2. timent seruae
  3. I love treasures.
  4. The daughter has slave-men and slave-women.
  5. habes aulam OR habetis aulam.
  6. The slave woman fears the slave-men.
  7. coquus seruam amat.
  8. You and I have pots.
  9. te et me filia vocat.
  10. The daughter loves the slave-man, and the slave-man loves the slave-woman.



Does anyone have any request? If not I have a few surprises up my sleeve!

Learning Latin Basics: Lesson I.A

Posted on 03. Dec, 2014 by in Latin Language

Salvete Omnes,

The first lesson when it comes to learning a new language is understanding its most used verb: the verb “to be.” One must also become accustomed to the sentence structure. So in today’s lesson, we are going to EASE into this language by covering the verb “to be.”

Learning Latin Basics: Lesson I “To Be”

It should be noted that this verb “to be” is quite irregular. However, I have underlined the endings below that will extend to other verb conjugations- so keep them in mind!

Basic Verb “I am” or “sum”

1st person singular (1st s.)= sum         “I am”

2nd person singular (2nd s.)= es       “You are”

3rd person singular (3rd s.)= es      “He, She or It is”

1st person plural (1st pl.)= sumus      “We are”

2nd person plural (2nd pl.)=estis       “You (a group) are”

3rd person plural (3rd pl.)=sunt         “They, There are”

I would start to get use to the language used 3rd pl. to indicate “They” form , or 1st s. to mean “I” form.


Some Basic Vocabulary:  

filia =daughter             puellae=girls                 me= me

serua= slave-woman     pueri= boys          nemo= no-one

seruus= slave-man        ego= I                    senex= old man

coquus=cook              tu= you (nom.)                et= and

fures= thieves             te= you (acc.)

[The vocabulary chosen was done so for their simplicity and not meant to offend.]



Verbs are often placed at the end of the sentence. The only time verbs are placed at the beginnings of the sentence is if they are meant to emphasize. Example: “sum coquus” I am a cook!

Latin does not have articles: “the, a, or an.” They are simply filled in at the translators discretion. I.E. the example above could be translated “sum coquus” could be “I am a cook” or “I am the cook.” Both are correct.


Exercise1.A English & Latin: Please take the time to try these, since practice is the only way to perfect your Latin skills.

  1. filia sum.
  2. He is no-one.
  3. fures estis
  4. The slave-man is an old man.
  5. filia et serua estis.
  6. I am a cook.
  7. est serua.
  8. You (pl.) are boys.
  9. puellae sumus
  10. te sum et me es.
  11. They are thieves.








Learning Latin Basics: Lesson I



  1. sum filia. = I am a daughter.
  2. He is no-one. = nemo est.*
  3. fures estis! = You are thieves!
  4. The slave-man is an old man. = Seruus senex est.**
  5. filia et serua estis.= You are a daughter and a woman-slave.
  6. I am a cook.= coquus sum.
  7. est serua. = She is a slave-woman.***
  8. You (pl.) are boys.= pueri estis.
  9. puellae sumus= We are girls.
  10. te sum et me es.= I am you and you are me.
  11. They are thieves. = fures sunt.

*”Nemo est” can also be written “est nemo.” It can mean “He is no-one” or “She is no-one” or “It is no-one;” however, this last example doesn’t make any sense since an “it” is not a person.

** This could be translated as “Seruus senex est” or “Senex seruus est” or “Serrus est senex.” As you can see there are many MANY different ways to translate sentences.

*** Unlike example #2, this “est” can only be translated as “She is,” since “serua” is feminine in meaning and gender. Gender will be addressed in the next post, but in short terms: All nouns have a gender either feminine, masculine, and neuter. Sometimes, the gender is obvious from the meaning of the noun; i.e. serua means slave-woman and is a feminine noun AND seruus means slave-man and is a masculine noun. The gender and case is determined by the endings, which I will address.


Was that fun? Informative? Craving more?  Next week, we will cover the 1st and 2nd conjugation verb and the 1st and 2nd declension noun along with more sentence exercises.


Disney Mythology vs. Greco-Roman Mythology: Part II

Posted on 25. Nov, 2014 by in Roman culture

Salvete Omnes!

Let’s continue with the Disney theme for this week! But don’t worry those Latin learners, next week we will begin Latin from the basics to the advance. If you have any questions or requests- please let comment below.

Disney World Main Street at Night   Disney World, Christmas, 2010. Courtesy of Randy Pertiet & Flickr.

Disney World Main Street at Night
Disney World, Christmas, 2010. Courtesy of
Randy Pertiet & Flickr.

#6. Pandora’s Box

Film or Series: Once Upon a Time; 2011

Pandora opens the pithos given to her by Zeus, thus releasing all the bad things of the world. Courtesy of WikiCommons.

Pandora opens the pithos given to her by Zeus, thus releasing all the bad things of the world. Courtesy of WikiCommons.

Disney Mythology: Pandora’s Box is a magical item featured on ABC’s Once Upon a Time. It first appears in the seventh episode of the third season. A picture of the device can be seen here.

Greco-Roman Mythology: Pandora’s Box is based on the titular item from the Greek myth. The box has the capability to store great evil, great magical, or simply human beings within it. Somewhat of a reverse of the ability of the original, as the original “Pandora’s box” was more like a amphora which held all the evils in the world (malice, greed, murder, etc.) and when she opened it they fled into the world with only hope left inside.



Film or Series: Fantasia, 1940 film.

Fantasia mini-golf course at Disney World. Courtesy of Flickr & Joe Shlabotnik .

Fantasia mini-golf course at Disney World. Courtesy of Flickr & Joe Shlabotnik .

Disney Mythology: Bacchus is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy.. He is a fun-loving Roman god, he is portrayed as an overweight, happily drunk man wearing a tunic and cloak, grape leaves on his head, and carrying a goblet of wine. He is friends with the fauns and centaurs, and is shown celebrating a harvest festival.

Greco-Roman Mythology: The way is portrayed is quite similar to his manner in mythology.


Film & Series: Fantasia; 1934. Hercules; 1997

YouTube Preview Image

Disney Mythology: Morpheus is a god of dreams who appears in Ovid’s Metamorphoses. Morpheus has the ability to mimic any human form and appear in dreams. His true semblance is that of a winged daemon, imagery shared with many of his siblings. Starting in the medieval period, the name Morpheus began to stand generally for the god of dreams or of sleep.[1]

YouTube Preview Image

Greco-Roman Mythology: However, the character (like many of Disney’s) is actually depicting Selene or Luna who rides a chariot bringing Night to the world. She rode, like her brother Helios, across the heavens in a chariot drawn by two white horses, cows, or mules (Ov. Fast. iv. 374).  The following is a poor quality clip from Youtube, but you can see the same idea as the previous video of “Luna” making it night in the first three seconds:


#9.  The Rape (Abduction) of Prosipina (Persephone)

Film or Series: The Goddess of Spring; 1934 & Beauty and the Beast; 1991.

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Disney Mythology: The film known as the “Goddess of Spring” is a direct retelling of the Rape of Proserpina. There is the small exception that the “Hades” figure looks quite more “devilish” than one would expect for ancient mythology.  Beauty and the Beast is more of a stretch, but the traditional story is still there. There is the Pluto (Beast), Prosipina (Belle), the abduction (Belle being kept in Beast’s castle), and the lack of season (It is fall and winter during her captivity),etc.

YouTube Preview Image

Greco-Roman Mythology: This story is originally Greek from the Homer Hymns to Demeter, but for most people and audience it is known from Ovid’s Metamorphoses. Pluto (Hades) falls in love with Prosipina (Persephone) and decides to steal her from the world and take her to the underworld. Whilst she is in the underworld, her mother Ceres (Demeter) mourns for her daughters disappearances. Her distraught causes the earth to begin its first fall and winter. With a constant bleak seasons plaguing humanity, Jupiter commands Pluto to give Prosipina back to the earth. Thus half the year, she spends in the underworld with Pluto and half is above ground with her mother. When she is with her mother, the season thrive (spring and summer). Thus we have seasons.


#9. Mythical Creatues

Film or Series: Chronicles of Naria;2005.

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Disney Mythology: C.S. Lewis Mythology was basically taken from Greco-Roman sources.

Satyr pursuing a nymph, on a Roman mosaic. Courtesy of WikiCommons.

Satyr pursuing a nymph, on a Roman mosaic. Courtesy of WikiCommons.

Greco-Roman Mythology: The creature depicted in this series include satyrs, centaurs, minotaur-like creatues, unicorns, griffins, cyclopedes, etc. These monsters are recorded by Pliny in his Natural History and Ovid Metamorphoses.


#10. Atlantis

Film or Series: Atlantis; 2001.

YouTube Preview Image

Disney Mythology: Disney has Atlantis as this super advanced civilizations that was saved by their ancestor’s power. Furthermore, Atlantis is thought to be in Iceland and not the Mediterranean.

Greco-Roman Mythology: Plato is one the primary sources historians have for Atlantis. You can read it here.