Archive for 'Latin Language'

The Fugalia Festival

Posted on 25. Feb, 2016 by in Latin Language, Roman culture

Festival Time!!!!!

In ancient Roman religion, Regifugium or Fugalia (“King’s Flight”) was an annual observance that took place every February 24. The Romans themselves offer varying views on the meaning of the day. According to Varro and Ovid, the festival commemorated the flight of the last king of Rome,

Tarquinius Superbus by Lawrence Alma-Tadema, depicting the king receiving a laurel; the poppies in the foreground refer to the "tall poppy" allegory (see below)

Tarquinius Superbus by Lawrence Alma-Tadema, depicting the king receiving a laurel; the poppies in the foreground refer to the “tall poppy” allegory (see below)

,[ Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (died 495 BC) was the legendary seventh and final king of Rome, reigning from 535 BC until the popular uprising in 509 that led to the establishment of the Roman Republic.

He is commonly known as Tarquin the Proud, from his cognomen Superbus (Latin for “proud, arrogant, lofty”) ] in 510 BC. Plutarch, however, explains it as the symbolic departure of the priest with the title rex sacrorum.

Statue of Ovid Courtesy of Wikimedia Common and Author Kurt Wichmann

Statue of Ovid Courtesy of Wikimedia Common and Author Kurt Wichmann

In his Fasti, Ovid offers the longest surviving account of the observance:

Now I must tell of the flight of the King, six days from the end of the month. The last of the Tarquins possessed the Roman nation, an unjust man, but nevertheless strong in war.

Nunc mihi dicenda est regis fuga. Traxit ab illa sextus ab extremo nomina mense dies. Ultima Tarquinius Romanæ gentis habebat regna, vir iniustus, fortis ad arma tamen.

Plutarch holds that the rex sacrorum was a substitute for the former king of Rome here as in various religious rituals. The rex held no civic or military role, but nevertheless was bound to offer a public sacrifice in the Comitia on this date. The “flight of the king” was the swift exit the proxy king was required to make from that place of public business. It may be that the two versions are to be reconciled by taking the “flight” of the rex sacrorum as a reenactment of the expulsion of Tarquinius.

 

Ancient Dentistry: Do you really want to know?

Posted on 17. Feb, 2016 by in Latin Language, Roman culture

Salvete Omnes (Hello Everyone!),

I hope everyone had a wonderful Valentine’s Day filled with love and chocolate! But, I wonder how many  of us overindulged on the candy and sweets?

DISCLAIMER: THIS POST WILL FEATURE EXAMPLES OF ANCIENT DENTISTRY. IMAGES MAY NOT BE SUITED FOR EVERYONE.

So I was hoping as a contrast to my making a Roman Dessert post, that this post on Ancient Dentistry will make us  grateful for modern dentistry and encourage to keep healthy habits with our teeth!

Timeline

Tooth Worms were a common belief well beyond antiquity.

Tooth Worms were a common belief well beyond antiquity.

5000 BC – A Sumerian text of this date describes “tooth worms” as the cause of dental decay. Evidence of this belief has also been found in ancient India, Egypt, Japan, and China. The legend of the worm is also found in the writings of Homer, and as late as the 1300’s AD the surgeon Guy de Chauliac still promoted the belief that worms cause tooth decay.

2600 BC – Death of Hesy-Re, an Egyptian scribe, often called the first “dentist.” An inscription on his tomb includes the title “the greatest of those who deal with teeth, and of physicians.” This is the earliest known reference to a person identified as a dental practitioner.

Cedar wood panel depicting Hesy-Ra.

Cedar wood panel depicting Hesy-Ra.

1800 BC – In the 18th century BC, the Code of Hammurabi referenced dental extraction twice as it related to punishment. Examination of the remains of some ancient Egyptians and Greco-Romans reveals early attempts at dental prosthetics and surgery.

1700-1550 BC – An Egyptian text, the Ebers Papyrus ( here and here), refers to diseases of the teeth and various toothache remedies.

500-300 BC – Hippocrates and Aristotle write about dentistry, including the eruption pattern of teeth, treating decayed teeth and gum disease, extracting teeth with forceps, and using wires to stabilize loose teeth and fractured jaws.

Ancient Roman bas-relief of a dentist examining a patient, A Profile of Ancient Rome. A Getty Publication.

Ancient Roman bas-relief of a dentist examining a patient, A Profile of Ancient Rome. A Getty Publication.

          100 BC – Celsus, a Roman medical writer, writes extensively in his important compendium of medicine on oral hygiene, stabilization of loose teeth, and treatments for toothache, teething pain, and jaw fractures.

166-201 AD – The Etruscans practice dental prosthetic using gold crowns and fixed bridgework usually held together by gold wire or strips.

'The Etruscans, who predated the Romans, practiced making dentures and implants as early as the 7th century BCE. They used gold wires, gold strips, and gold rivets in their intricate dentistry.

‘The Etruscans, who predated the Romans, practiced making dentures and implants as early as the 7th century BCE. They used gold wires, gold strips, and gold rivets in their intricate dentistry.

Tools:

  • The first toothbrush, which is made of bristles, was invented during the Chinese Tang Dynasty (619-907).
  • When it comes to toothpaste, the ancient people used pastes made from various herbs. In ancient Greece, the toothpaste is made out of coral powder, iron rust, pumice, talc, and alabaster. The toothpaste of ancient Romans were made from ground eggshell and fresh honey.
  • The first artificial teeth were carved from animal bones and eventually wood.

 

Greek and Latin Suffixes and Roots for Dental Terms:

Prefix/Suffix Definition Example
-algia pain odontALGIA = tooth pain
-a without Acellular = having no cells
arth- joint ARTHOscope=an instrument to see inside a joint
dent, odont tooth or teeth ODONToma = tumor composed of tooth structures
-ectomy excision appendECTOMY = excision of the appendix
-emia blood hyperEMIA = above normal amount of blood in an a tissue
endo- within ENDOdont =inside a tooth
-gen- beginning, produce pathoGENic = disease producing
gingiv- pertaining to the gums GINGIVitis = inflammation of the gums
glyc- sugar GYLColysis = sugar dissolving
hyper- over, excessive, above HYPERmobility= more mobility than normal
hypo- below, under, deficient HYPOthermia = below normal temperature
-ia, -iasis condition odontalgIA = condition of tooth pain
infra- below INFRAorbital = below the eye
inter- between INTERcellular = between cells
intra- within INTRAoral = within the mouth
itis inflammation periodontITIS = inflammation of supporting structures of teeth
lingu- pertaining to the tongue LINGUal surface = the surface closest to the tongue
-logy study of pathoLOGY = study of disease
-lysis destruction, dissolving glycoLYSIS = dissolving sugar
muc- mucous MUCositis = inflammation of mucous membrane
neo- new NEOplasm = new growth
-oid resembling wordOID = resembling a word (this is not a real word)
-oma tumor odontOMA = tumor composed of tooth structures
-osis condition, disease periodontOSIS = condition of the periodontium
-path, -pathy disease PATHOlogy = study of disease
peri- around PERIoral = around the mouth
perio- supporting structures of the teeth PERIOdontal = involving the supporting structures of teeth
-phil- love acidoPHILic = acid loving
-plast, -plasty repair, form, grow gingivoPLASTy = repair of the gingiva to functional form
post- behind, after
py pus PYogenic= pus producing
-rrhea burst forth, pour sialoRRHEA = excessive flow of saliva
-scope instrument used to view arthoSCOPE = an instrument to see inside a joint
sial- saliva SIALorrhea = excessive flow of saliva
-stomia mouth xeroSTOMIA = dry mouth
super- above, excessive SUPERnumerary = excessive number
supra- above SUPRAgingival = above the margin of the gums
xero- dry XEROstomia = dry mouth

asdfas

Make an Ancient Roman Dessert..I Challenge You

Posted on 04. Feb, 2016 by in Latin Language, Roman culture

Salvete Omnes,

Oh how I have missed writing! I am sorry that I have written in a while, but I’m back. Today we are going to ease back into the Roman world and Latin. I am trying something new for 2016. I will be posting bucketlist post every once in a while to inform readers and followers of unique things they can do to really live up 2016!

Today, February 3, is also National Carrot Cake Day! So, I decided that today’s blog should be one about a dessert.

SO I CHALLENGE YOU…….

The following recipe is from Apicius’ De re coquinaria (“On the Subject of Cooking”)

The Apicius manuscript (ca. 900 CE) of the monastery of Fulda in Germany, which was acquired in 1929 by the New York Academy of Medicine

The Apicius manuscript (ca. 900 CE) of the monastery of Fulda in Germany, which was acquired in 1929 by the New York Academy of Medicine

Patina  de piris* [ Pan/Stew/Cake of Pears; literally pan /stew/cake from pears]

Pear Mosaic

Pear Mosaic

Pira elixa et purgata e medio teres** cum pipere, cumino, melle, passo, liquamine, oleo modico. Ovis missis patinam facies**, piper super aspargis**et inferes**.

Boiled pears and having been purged or cleaned from its middle (i.e seeds, pit, etc.) you will grind with pepper, cumin, honey , wine, broth, and a little oil. Having been mixed with eggs, you will make a pan/stew/cake, spread or sprinkle with pepper and serve.

*piris is an ablative as evident from de, but it could be debated the type of ablative. Ablative of origin, source, means, etc.

** Great examples of the 2nd singular future that you don’t see that often, but this make sense for a directions. It is interesting that it isn’t an imperative.

Thoughts:

Well, in all honestly, this is more like a custard or pudding made out of pears. While this recipe is very simple, but it doesn’t say anything about cooking, time, amounts, etc.. That doesn’t really work well for our modern day thinking…so I have provided everyone with a up-to-date recipe (here) with directions.