Tag Archives: Latin language

Learning Latin Basics: Lesson II

Posted on 10. Dec, 2014 by in Latin Language

Salvete Omnes,

We have much to cover today! We are going to review the 1st and 2nd Conjugations and Declensions along with some sentence work.

 

 VERBS

1st Conjugation “Amo= I love”

1st s.= amo  “ I love, I do love, I am loving”

2nd s.= amas “You love”

3rd s.= amat “He loves, She love, It loves”

1st pl.=amamus “We love”

2nd pl.=amatis “You (plural) love)”

3rd pl.=amant “ They love”

  • One indicator of a 1st conjugation verb is the before the stem (which is underlined) there is usually an “a” in other forms. However, there is just an “o” ending in the 1st s. form.

2nd Conjugation “Habeo= I have”

1st s.= habeo “I have”

2nd s.= habes “You have”

3rd s.= habet “He has, She has, It has”

1st pl.= habemus “We have”

2nd pl.= habetis “You (plural) have”

3rd pl. =habent “They have”

  • As with the 1st conjugation and the “a” indicator, the 2nd conjugation will have an “e” in its 1st s. form.

Conjugate Exercise:

  1. Celo (1st conjugation)
  2. Timeo (2nd conjugation)
  3. Porto(1st conjugation)
  4. Habeo(2nd conjugation)
  5. Sum (Irregular Cojugation)**

**If you have already forgotten how to conjugate sum, take a look at last week’s post!

 

NOUNS

Nouns in Latin, unlike in English, change depending on the role in a sentence. By change, I mean, that the endings on the noun will change to either a nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative (or vocative and locative- which aren’t used as much).

 

1st Declension is the declension to refer to nouns that “decline” to the following forms; which are usually feminine (99% of the time):

aqua, –ae water f. (feminine)
Singular Plural
Nominative aqua –a aquae –ae
Accusative aquam –am aquās –ās
Genitive aquae –ae aquārum –ārum
Dative aquae –ae aquīs –īs
Ablative aquā –ā aquīs –īs
     

If you noticed that most of endings have an “a” in them. [Sorta reminds you of the 1st conjugation verbs with the “a” stem.]

2nd Declension is the declension to refer to nouns that “decline” to the following forms; which are usually masculine (99% of the time):

dominus, –ī master m. (masculine)
Singular Plural
Nominative dominus –us dominī –ī
Accusative dominum –um dominōs –ōs
Genitive dominī –ī dominōrum –ōrum
Dative dominō –ō dominīs –īs
Ablative dominō –ō dominīs –īs
 

 

Notes on Declensions:

If you noticed that the endings do not have a common vowel, but in comparison to the 1st Declension- it is similar except for the “a” being replaced” with “u” in the singular, “o” in the plural and “ae” [mostly] replaced with “i.”

Please do not be thrown off or worried that the dative and ablative plural in the 1st and 2nd declension are the same. It is important simply to familiarize yourself with these forms.

 

Also did you notice that when these nouns were written out; they looked like: “dominus, -i” and “ aqua, -ae?” This is to show the Nominative singular form and then the ending to the Genitive singular form. This will assist in providing which declension a noun is since (“-us & -i” endings are clearly 2nd declension while “-a & -ae” are clearly 1st declension).

 

Nominative & Accusative:

The nominative case is used for the subject in a sentence. The accusative is the direct object of the sentence:

I love cats. I= nominative, love= verb, cats= accusative.

Are you following so far? Let’s look at some Latin.

 

Vocabulary:

Filia, -ae =daughter             timeo= I am afraid, I fear             voco= I call

Serua, -ae= slave-woman     et= and                                    aula, -ae=pot

Seruus, -i= slave-man        ego= I                                      thesaurus, -i= treasure

Coquus,-i=cook                 tu= you                                            amo= I love

te= you (accusative)           me=me                                   habeo= I have

Exercise:

  1. filiam coqui vocat.
  2. The slave-women are afraid.
  3. thesauros ego amat.
  4. Seruas et Seruos Filae habent.
  5. You have a pot.
  6. serua timet seruos.
  7. The cook loves the female-slave.
  8. ego et tu habent aulas.
  9. The daughter calls you and me.
  10. filia amat seruum, et seruum amat seruam.

 

 

 

Answer:

  1. The cooks call the daughter
  2. timent seruae
  3. I love treasures.
  4. The daughter has slave-men and slave-women.
  5. habes aulam OR habetis aulam.
  6. The slave woman fears the slave-men.
  7. coquus seruam amat.
  8. You and I have pots.
  9. te et me filia vocat.
  10. The daughter loves the slave-man, and the slave-man loves the slave-woman.

 

NEXT WEEK:

Does anyone have any request? If not I have a few surprises up my sleeve!

Learning Latin Basics: Lesson I.A

Posted on 03. Dec, 2014 by in Latin Language

Salvete Omnes,

The first lesson when it comes to learning a new language is understanding its most used verb: the verb “to be.” One must also become accustomed to the sentence structure. So in today’s lesson, we are going to EASE into this language by covering the verb “to be.”

Learning Latin Basics: Lesson I “To Be”

It should be noted that this verb “to be” is quite irregular. However, I have underlined the endings below that will extend to other verb conjugations- so keep them in mind!

Basic Verb “I am” or “sum”

1st person singular (1st s.)= sum         “I am”

2nd person singular (2nd s.)= es       “You are”

3rd person singular (3rd s.)= es      “He, She or It is”

1st person plural (1st pl.)= sumus      “We are”

2nd person plural (2nd pl.)=estis       “You (a group) are”

3rd person plural (3rd pl.)=sunt         “They, There are”

I would start to get use to the language used 3rd pl. to indicate “They” form , or 1st s. to mean “I” form.

 

Some Basic Vocabulary:  

filia =daughter             puellae=girls                 me= me

serua= slave-woman     pueri= boys          nemo= no-one

seruus= slave-man        ego= I                    senex= old man

coquus=cook              tu= you (nom.)                et= and

fures= thieves             te= you (acc.)

[The vocabulary chosen was done so for their simplicity and not meant to offend.]

 

Notes:

Verbs are often placed at the end of the sentence. The only time verbs are placed at the beginnings of the sentence is if they are meant to emphasize. Example: “sum coquus” I am a cook!

Latin does not have articles: “the, a, or an.” They are simply filled in at the translators discretion. I.E. the example above could be translated “sum coquus” could be “I am a cook” or “I am the cook.” Both are correct.

 

Exercise1.A English & Latin: Please take the time to try these, since practice is the only way to perfect your Latin skills.

  1. filia sum.
  2. He is no-one.
  3. fures estis
  4. The slave-man is an old man.
  5. filia et serua estis.
  6. I am a cook.
  7. est serua.
  8. You (pl.) are boys.
  9. puellae sumus
  10. te sum et me es.
  11. They are thieves.

 

 

ANSWERS ARE BELOW WITH EXPLANATIONS……

 

 

 

 

Learning Latin Basics: Lesson I

 

Answers

  1. sum filia. = I am a daughter.
  2. He is no-one. = nemo est.*
  3. fures estis! = You are thieves!
  4. The slave-man is an old man. = Seruus senex est.**
  5. filia et serua estis.= You are a daughter and a woman-slave.
  6. I am a cook.= coquus sum.
  7. est serua. = She is a slave-woman.***
  8. You (pl.) are boys.= pueri estis.
  9. puellae sumus= We are girls.
  10. te sum et me es.= I am you and you are me.
  11. They are thieves. = fures sunt.

*”Nemo est” can also be written “est nemo.” It can mean “He is no-one” or “She is no-one” or “It is no-one;” however, this last example doesn’t make any sense since an “it” is not a person.

** This could be translated as “Seruus senex est” or “Senex seruus est” or “Serrus est senex.” As you can see there are many MANY different ways to translate sentences.

*** Unlike example #2, this “est” can only be translated as “She is,” since “serua” is feminine in meaning and gender. Gender will be addressed in the next post, but in short terms: All nouns have a gender either feminine, masculine, and neuter. Sometimes, the gender is obvious from the meaning of the noun; i.e. serua means slave-woman and is a feminine noun AND seruus means slave-man and is a masculine noun. The gender and case is determined by the endings, which I will address.

 

Was that fun? Informative? Craving more?  Next week, we will cover the 1st and 2nd conjugation verb and the 1st and 2nd declension noun along with more sentence exercises.

 

Pope ditches Latin as official language of Vatican

Posted on 06. Nov, 2014 by in Latin Language

Salvete Omnes,

I hope that everyone has had a great Halloween with party, candy, and great costumes! However what I would like to talk about today is the fact that the Latin language has become a little less bright in the world this last month.

Pope Francis in August 2014. Courtesy of WikiCommons and Stemoc.

Pope Francis in August 2014. Courtesy of WikiCommons and Stemoc.

“In a break with the past, Pope Francis has decided that Latin will not be the official language of a worldwide gathering of bishops at the Vatican.” reports the Reuters (a news site).

In synods, Latin was the official language of documents for meetings and even some participants chose to speak in Latin. However with Pope Francis’ announcement; Italian would become the synod’s official language.

For those who are unsure what a synod is; let me explain. A synod is ” a council of a church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application.”

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In all honesty, I feel quite upset and perturbed at this new because I was such strong advocate for the Catholic church’s use of Latin.  Upon my beginning this position with Transparent Language Company, I wrote one of my first post on the usefulness of Latin in the world (here). The Catholic Church is like one of the last advocates for Latin.

It is no lie that the use of Latin in the Church has greatly diminished since the turn of favor for local languages. However, Latin still remains the official language of the universal Church. And it is the language of reference for translating major documents into the modern language.

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Next week, I am hoping to start a new type of post next week that focuses on grammar and my first stab at video blogging.  Please let me know if there is anything you, my audience, would prefer me to focus on. However, I would like to start at the beginning of grammar for Latin.