Tag Archives: Roman mythology

June 20th: Ancient Roman Festival to Summanus

Posted on 18. Jun, 2014 by in Latin Language, Roman culture

Salvete Omnes!

I hope that everyone is enjoying their summer! I decided in honor of the summer solstice (the official first day of summer) that I would write about a unknown Roman festival and deity. As many of you know, the Ancient Romans were polytheists; thus, they had many gods they needed to appease throughout the year. June 20th, the day before the summer solstice, was actually a holiday for one of their more obscure deities: Summanus.

WHO WAS SUMMANUS?

Nocturnal Lightning. Courtesy of WikiCommons, Mathias Krumbholz, and Leviathan1983,

Nocturnal Lightning. Courtesy of WikiCommons, Mathias Krumbholz, and Leviathan1983,

Summanus was a deity of evening or nocturnal lightning, while Jupiter (or Zeus) was a deity of diurnal or daytime lightning; as St. Augustine attests to in his De Civitate Dei Book IV, Chapter 23: “diurna Jovis, nocturna Summani fulgura habentur*” Daytime lightning(s) were held by Jove, nocturnal lightning(s) were held by Summanus.”

WHAT DID THE ROMANS THINK OF HIM?

St. Augustine furthers asserts concerning Summanus: “coluerunt magis quam Jovem.”  “They cared (for Summanus) rather than Jove (Jupiter).”

640px-8646_-_St_Petersburg_-_Hermitage_-_Jupiter2

A marble statue of Jupiter from c. 200 CE Courtesy of WikiCommons, Andrew Bossi, 8646 – St Petersburg – Hermitage – Jupiter, Bobisbob

So, it clear that the Romans had a distinct affinity to this deity even over the king of gods: Jupiter. Cicero (De Divinatione Book 1 Chapter 10):

de fulgurum vi dubitare num possumus? Nonne cum multa alia mirabilia, tum illud in primis: Cum Summanus in fastigio Iovis optumi maxumi, qui tum erat fictilis, e caelo ictus esset nec usquam eius simulacri caput inveniretur.

Are we able to doubt about the (prophetic) force of lightning? Are there not many other (times) with (this) wonders/miracles? At this time, is the following not especially (an example)? When Summanus, on the pediment of greatest and best Jupiter, who (Summanus) was then made of clay (i.e a statue), from the heavens it was struck (lightning), and not anywhere was the head of his statue found.

In response to this omen, it is said that a temple was built to Summanus near the Circus Maximus.

Model of the Circus Maximus. Courtesy of WikiCommons & Pascal Radigue.

Model of the Circus Maximus. Courtesy of WikiCommons & Pascal Radigue.

As the Roman poet Ovid wrote in his Fasti 6 731-732:

“Quisquis is est, Summano templa feruntur, tum, cum Romanis, Pyrrhe, timendus eras.”

A temple was built to Summanus, whoever he is, at that time, when you, Pyrrhus, were a terror the Romans.**

It is clear by this quote that the origin and even the god “Summanus” was somewhat of an enigma amongst his own worshippers and followers.

ETYMOLOGY

Summanus may simply be an evolution from summus  meaning highest. Perhaps it is also related to manus meaning hand. Thus, the combination of the name could evoke the imagery of the highest hand throwing down lightning bolts to the earth.  Another theory concerning Summanus’ name is that it is a combination of summus and the term manus which is sort of underworld deity. [For more exploration of this deity and his name; look here.] There is an Italian mountain, Monte Summano (sometimes spelled with only one M), that may have even been named after this obscure deity.  Curiously, the mountain top is frequently hit by lightning bolts.

MOUNT SUMMANO: WHOSE MOUNTAIN?

Traditionally Mount Summano (elevation 1291 m.) in the Alps near Veneto, Italy is considered a site of the cult of god Pluto, Jupiter, Summanus and the Manes.

Monte Summano in the distance. Courtesy of WikiCommons & Twice 25.

Monte Summano in the distance. Courtesy of WikiCommons & Twice 25.

manus or the manes (plural) were chthonic deities (deities of the earth or underworld [chthonic] who were usually sacrificed dark animals as opposed to air deities [Olympian] who were offered light colored animals) that were closely resembled of the Lares or household deities. Martianus Capella (De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii  Book II, Chapter 164) thought that Summanus was simply another name for Pluto.

Lar holding a cornucopia from Lora del Rio in Roman Spain, early 1st century AD (National Archaeological Museum of Spain) Courtesy of WikiCommons & Luis García .

Pluto who was the Roman equivalent to Hades was lord of the Underworld and brother of Jupiter (or Zeus). Jupiter traditional being the king of the gods and the male supreme god of the air, ethereal region, and heavens. While, Pluto resigned in Hades where he reigned in darkness, death, and the afterlife.

Hades with Cerberus (Heraklion Archaeological Museum). Courtesy of WikiCommons, Stella Maris.

Hades with Cerberus (Heraklion Archaeological Museum). Courtesy of WikiCommons, Stella Maris.

Thus, the correlation between Pluto and Summanus at Monte Summano may not be coincidental. Agreeing with Martianus Capella, Summanus simply may be a different aspect of Pluto.  Jupiter and Pluto were brothers, but often are seen as complete opposites. One is light, and one is dark (the yin and the yang if you will.) Therefore, perhaps this “Pluto Summanus” (lord of evening lightning)  is simply the aspect of Pluto that contrasts  Jupiter’s supremacy over daytime lightning.

SANCTUARY & FLORAL POPULATION

“Archeological excavations have found a sanctuary that dates back to the first Iron Age (9th century BCE) and was continuously active till late antiquity (at least the 4th century CE). The local flora is very peculiar as in ancient times pilgrims used to bring flowers from their native lands.”

 

In research for this blog entry, I was attempting to find a picture of at least one flower that may be found on this mountain(Easier said than done!). I made an interesting discovery. In Gardeners Chronicle & New Horticulturist (view it here)  an article from 1905 on the species of the Daphne (Yes, this is taken from the Daphne who runs away from Apollo). At the bottom of the first column, there is a paragraph dedicated to this wondrous flower. The entry goes:

The plant requires sunshine and calcareous rock. I found it last year on Monte Summano exposed to the hottest sun on the dolomite rocks with hardly any soil. It forces its roots into the living rock and so finds needful freshness and nourishment.”

Daphne

Daphne petraea. Courtesy of WikiCommons & Enrico Blasutto.

As of today, this particular flower is only found in the Alps (where Monte Summano is) and is a protected plant. Due to the fact that this flower is only now existent near Monte Sumano or within a general pollinating area, I would conjecture that the original source from which the flower existed is gone. I would argue, henceforth, that this was one of the many floral offerings brought to the ancient sanctuary and thus one of the “peculiar” floral populations on Monte Sumano. For a closer and more extensive look at this flower, direct your attention here.

FESTIVAL & CELEBRATIONAS : LET THEM EAT CAKES & BBQ

Roman relief depicting a scene of sacrifice, with libations at a flaming altar and the victimarius carrying the sacrificial axe. Courtesy of WikiCommons and Wolfgang Sauber.

Roman relief depicting a scene of sacrifice, with libations at a flaming altar and the victimarius carrying the sacrificial axe. Courtesy of WikiCommons and Wolfgang Sauber.

It is said that on this day round cakes in the shape of wheels were offered to Summanus along with two dark oxen (since he is considered a chthonic deity). The round cakes were usually made from flour, milk, and honey. The wheel has often been argued by scholar to be a solar symbol. However, it is unclear as to why a nocturnal lightning god would relish in solar symbolic cakes

Modern Day    ; also known as a wheel cake.  Courtesy of WikiCommons & Reguly.

Modern Day Kolacz ; also known as a wheel cake.
Courtesy of WikiCommons & Reguly.

There is one solution to this contradiction: Pettazzoni offers in his essay on “The Wheel in Ritual Symbolism of Some Indo-European Peoples” (view it here)that the festival was actual celebrated on June 20th, because it was the natalis or birthday of his temple built by Circus Maximus.

Thus the wheel cakes known as summanalia are not in reference to the deity himself, but the time of year. June 20th is the day before the Summer Solstice . The Summer Solstice being the longest day of the year.

Diagram of the Earth's seasons as seen from the north. Far left: summer solstice for the Northern Hemisphere. Front right: summer solstice for the Southern Hemisphere. Courtesy of WikiCommons and Tauʻolunga.

Diagram of the Earth’s seasons as seen from the north. Far left: summer solstice for the Northern Hemisphere. Front right: summer solstice for the Southern Hemisphere.
Courtesy of WikiCommons and Tauʻolunga.

Finally, it should be noted that festival for any deity no matter how small or new they were taken seriously. There were taken seriously by those who were pious and fearful of the gods, and by those who wanted to party and have a great barbeque. Sometimes, the animals that were sacrificed after having been killed were eaten by the attendees of the festival and celebration. In modern day, many of us can relate with our various patriotic holidays that somehow call for us to bbq- perhaps this is where the tradition comes from!

BBQ. Courtesy of WikiCommons and Murcotipton.

BBQ. Courtesy of WikiCommons and Murcotipton.

Thanks for reading! Hope you all found this as interesting as I found it to write it!

 

 

*Fulgura is a neuter plural noun, but the word lightnings does not exist in our English vocabulary, but habentur means “were held”- which is third person plural.

**The Pyrrhic War occurred  roughly 270 BC.

Ten Latin Spells From Harry Potter

Posted on 07. May, 2014 by in Latin Language

J. K. Rowling

J. K. Rowling Courtesy of Wikicommons & Daniel Ogren.

The magical world of J. K. Rowling is known by millions (if not billions) of children, teens, and adults. Especially  those who grew up reading the books and then watched the magic come to life of the silver screen later on. J.K. Rowling created the world of Harry Potter from her vast imagination (and personal experience) and perhaps from other sources.  These included Dickens and Tolkien, which she says filled her free time during her college years.

J.K Rowling attended University of Exeter and received her BA in French and Classics. It is evident that she received a degree in Classics, because the Harry Potter series is filled with Latin words and ancient mythology. While the mythological references may be easier to see in character names (i.e Minerva McGonagall as in Minerva the Roman goddess of wisdom); the Latin reference may not be as discernible.

 

SPELLS THAT USE “LATIN”

Accio: Latin “I summon.”

Accio is a verb that means “I call, summon, send for, invite;” Harry Potter uses it in the first challenge of the TriWizard Tournament.

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Stupefy: Pseudo-Latin “I cause (you) to be stunned.

Stupefy is a stunning spell which is a hodgepodge of two Latin words. The Latin verb stupeo meaning “to be stunned, numbed, astonished”  and fio meaning “make, do, cause to happen.” The spell is used to stun opponents.

Reducto: Latin “Having been reduced” or ” I bring back or withdraw”

Reducto is not the 1st singular form (the “I reduced” form), but a perfect passive participles meaning “having been reduced.” However, it could be from the rare verb reducto  (used in a Aurelius Victor “De Caesaribus“) meaning to withdraw. In either case, the spell itself seems to be used as a pulverize spell which “reduces” its intended object to its basic form. You can see Ginny cast reducto at the end of this video.

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Nox: Latin for “night.”

This is a wand extinguishing spell. It is used several times by characters in Harry Potter to dim their wands and proceed with their activities clandestine.

Lumos Maxima: Pseudo-Latin ” Great Light!”

Let’s start off with the easier word, maxima meaning “great, large, or vast.”  Now for the difficult part, I was a bit unsure why Rowling decided on lumos. It closely resembles the Latin lumen meaning “light, lamp,” but the most obvious word she should have used would have been “Lux” which actually means “light, brightness.” Furthermore “Lux” (as a wand lighting charm)would have been a nice parallel to “Nox” (the wand extinguishing spell). That being said, lumen is a neuter singular noun and thus I have to assumer lumos would be as well ( but the -os ending is more Greek to me). Since lumen is a neuter singular noun, maxima can only be feminine or netuer plural. Thus, I would have to argue that Rowling forgot her grammar rules or simply like the way these two words sounded together.

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Expecto Patronum: Latin “I await a guardian.”

Expecto means “I await, look for, hope or desire for;” while Patronum means “a guardian, protector, or defender before a court.” It is nice that Rowling recalled her Latin grammar in this saying, since Patronum is declined properly to the accusative form(direct object).

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**In this clip, there is a nice moment were Harry Potter actually calls the result of the spell (usually some sort of animal) a “Patronus” which is the nominative (subject form) of the noun. YAY for Latin!

Homenem revilio:  Pseudo-Latin “I unveil the man”

In proper Latin, it’s hominem revelo, “I unveil the man.” It is therefore a logical thing to say when outing someone hiding under an invisibility cloak.

 The Unforgivable Curses

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Imperio:  Latin “a command, order .”

The curse would obviously be used to command people or subject them to mind control. The strength and its the duration of the curse is determined by person who cast it, as well as by the level of resistance of the victim. The spell is formally known as the Imperius curse. Imperius which is not Latin, but Pseudo-Latin. Rowling seems to have simply added the -us ending to the Imperio root. Today, the words “empire or imperial” are derived from this very common Latin word.

Crucio: Latin “I torture.”

This curse, again, would be implanted to torture people. The curse is so powerful that it can even torture a person(s) to the point that they are exhausted to death or causes permanent amnesia and insanity (the case of Neville’s parents, who were tortured by Bellatrix Lestrange). This spell is known as the Cruciatus curse, which is perfect Latin. Cruciatus is derived from Crucio and is the perfect passive particple form of the verb. Furthermore, the resemblance to the word crucifixion is apparent. Crucifixion was a standard form of execution in ancient Rome.

Avada Kedavra: Pseudo-Latin “Let the thing be destroyed” or “Let the thing be a corpse”

2004 Rowling said the following about the Killing Curse:

It is an ancient spell in Aramaic, and it is the original of abracadabra, which means ‘let the thing be destroyed.’ Originally, it was used to cure illness and the ‘thing’ was the illness, but I decided to make it the ‘thing’ as in the person standing in front of me. I take a lot of liberties with things like that. I twist them round and make them mine.”[

So, where does the Latin fit in?

Rowling may have changed the ending of the spell to include the Latin word cadaver which means “corpse.”

**However, I should note that Harry Potter fans and scholars have largely debated the origins of both abracadabra, its meaning, its origins, and thus how it should be translated in Harry Potter. Regardless, it is a killing curse, which only two people have survived.

 

 Here are some examples of Latin references that are NOT spells:

Hogwarts Motto: “Draco Dormiens Numquam Titillandus” means “Never tickle a sleeping dragon!” or “A dragon who is sleeping never tickle.”

Severus Snape: Severus means “strict” or “harsh” in Latin. This obviously fits his character as a professor of Potions and the Dark Arts.

Ludo Bagman: Ludo means “I play” or “I play a game” in Latin. In the series, he was assigned to the post of Head of the Department of Magical Games and Sports; thus, he was responsible in part for both the Quidditch World Cup and the TriWizard Tournament (both events are described in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire).

Dolores Umbridge: Dolores means “pain, ache, suffering, and anguish.” Umbra means “shadow, uninvited guest, pretense, representation, or semblance.” Therefore, her name comes to mean a “painful one who is uninvited,” or “suffering but puts up a pretense( of being sweet),” or lastly ” she is the representation of anguish.” In Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix,  she caused Harry a lot of pain in various detention-like settings.

Lord Voldemort: Volo  means either “I wish” or “I fly,” de can mean “from” or “away,” and  mort may be a form of mors, mortis meaning “death.” So the Dark Lord’s name literally means “One who flies from death” (as in he is hard to kill) or “One who makes YOU wish you were away from death” (as in he is horrid and death is more seemly).

Albus Dumbledore: Albus means “white” or “fortunate”  in Latin. The books  always say Dumbledore has a white beard. But, this Latin term could also refer to the fact that he is not a dark or evil wizard.

 

Game of Thrones & Ancient Rome: Part I

Posted on 16. Apr, 2014 by in Roman culture

The popular book and television series, Game of Thrones, portrays a world rich with magic, adventure, romance, and history. While most fans of the series thoroughly enjoy the refreshing originality of the series; others would say that Game of Thrones is simply a fantastical interpretation of actual historic events and themes. In this post, I will attempt to analyze some of these historic references that may be obvious or not so obvious. While it is known that a majority of the history that Game of Thrones is based on is much later than Ancient Rome (1400′s or later); I would argue that there are several examples from Ancient Rome that relate to this series.

 

DISCLAIMER: If you are new to the series and are not up to date on the HBO series’ episodes, I should warn you that there are spoilers ahead! I will not be discussing any events that lie beyond the current HBO series (The Lion and The Rose;Episode S4E2) as I do not wish to deter those who have not read the books from this post. Any quote from the books will not reveal any spoilers or new information.

1) The Wall vs. Hadrian’s Wall

The author, George R.R. Martin, has acknowledged openly his inspiration of The Wall from Hadrian’s Wall:

Certainly the Wall comes from Hadrian’s Wall, which I saw while visiting Scotland. I stood on Hadrian’s Wall and tried to imagine what it would be like to be a Roman soldier sent here from Italy or Antioch.  To stand here, to gaze off into the distance, not knowing what might emerge from the forest.  Of course fantasy is the stuff of bright colours and being larger than real life, so my Wall is bigger and considerably longer and more magical.  And, of course, what lies beyond it has to be more than just Scots. (SF Site Interview; found here.)

Hadrian's Wall or Vallum Aelium.

Hadrian’s Wall or Vallum Aelium. Courtesy of WikiCommons & Adam Cuerden.

Hadrian’s Wall was begun in 122 CE  by Emperor Hadrian. The origin for its purpose vary from military defense, to protection from immigration, smuggling, or simply a demonstration of power. Perhaps it was built for all these reason (or none of them).One text,  Scriptores Historiae Augustae: Vita Hadriani, claims:

“(Hadrian) was the first to build a wall 80 miles long to separate the Romans from the barbarians”

Location of Hadrian's Wall

Location of Hadrian’s Wall. Courtesy of WIkiCommons & Mahahahaneapneap.

In the series, one of the main characters (Jon Snow) gives his account upon seeing The Wall for the first time:

Almost seven hundred feet high it stood, three times the height of the tallest tower in the stronghold it sheltered. His uncle said the top was wide enough for a dozen armored knights to ride abreast. The gaunt outlines of huge catapults and monstrous wooden cranes stood sentry up there, like the skeletons of great birds, and among them walked men in black as small as ants. - Jon Snow’s first impression of  ” The Wall.”

The following video is of Jon Snow seeing The Wall for the first time (please excuse any add-ons; this was the only video available):

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2) Daenerys  Targaryen vs. Boudicca

In Game of Thrones, the once proper and submissive princess is transformed through the series into a barbaric queen, a destitute widow, a mother of dragons, a sacker of cities, and a mother of freed slaves. Daenerys Targaryen is interesting character that evolves quite rapidly and adapts to each of her roles. She is one of the strongest female characters within the series. Here is a perfect quote concerning her character:

I know that she spent her childhood in exile, impoverished, living on dreams and schemes, running from one city to the next, always fearful, never safe, friendless but for a brother who was by all accounts half-mad…a brother who sold her maidenhood to the Dothraki  for the promise of an army.  I know that somewhere upon the grass, her  dragons hatched, and so did she.  I know she is proud. How not?  What else was left her but pride? I know she is strong.  How not? The Dothraki despise weakness. If Daenerys had been weak, she would have perished with Viserys. I know she is fierce. She has survived assassins and conspiracies and  fell sorceries, grieved for a brother and a husband and a son, trod the cities of the slavers to dust beneath her dainty sandalled feet.

Here is an example of her strength and wit from season 3:

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Daenerys Targaryen is highly reminiscent of the strong barbarian queen Boudicca. According to historians,  Boudicca was a capable military leader whose hair is often remarked upon (not unlike Daenerys):

 She was “possessed of greater intelligence than often belongs to women”, that she was tall and had hair described as red, reddish-brown, or tawny hanging below her waist. Dio also says she had a harsh voice and piercing glare, and habitually wore a large golden necklace (perhaps a torc), a many-coloured tunic, and a thick cloak fastened by a brooch.

Boadicea by Thomas Thornycroft, standing near Westminster Pier, London

Boadicea by Thomas Thornycroft, standing near Westminster Pier, London. Courtesy of Wikicommons & Jpb1301.

Similarly both women find that the death of their husband (in Boudicca’s case) and/or father (in Daenerys’) lead to their doom and exile. However, these deaths do not defeat their spirits, but invigorate them to become warriors. For example, Boudicca leads an uprising against the Romans just as Daenerys plans to lead an uprising against those in Westeros. They both seek to take revenge upon those that have wronged (Westeros and Rome) them whilst avenging the injustices inflicted upon themselves. On a side note, it would seem that Boudicca’s fashion was a point of inspiration for Daenerys as both Khaleesi and the Mother of Dragons  (large necklace, multi-colored tunic, etc.)

For another look at Daenerys and historic figures; check out her comparison to Henry VII: here.

3) Weddings

Wedding are known for being a joyous event in which man and woman become one family and their families in turn recognize and honor the union. However, this would seem not to be the case for weddings in Game of Thrones. They are political advancements, bring short-lived joy, and bloody.  First there was the Red Wedding and now just this week: the Purple Wedding.  In the series, weddings appear to be an event in which people die and the story’s plot takes an unprecedented turn.

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In Ancient Rome, there are various accounts historic and mythological that portray the setting of a wedding, but produce death and havoc.

  • Messalina’s marriage to Sentaor Gaius Silius; although she was already married to the emperor. This action resulted in their deaths.
  • Wedding feast of Pirithous, which resulted in the battle of Centaurs and Lapiths (here).
  • Medea’s poisoned wedding gifts to Jason’s new soon-to-be wife Glauce, which killed Glauce and Medea’s children.
  • Dido, who believes her and Aeneas are married due to their sexual union, kills herself on their “wedding night” because he leaves her.
  • And while it is not ancient, to anyone who didn’t know that the Red Wedding was based on the Black Dinner; here.

 4) The Seven and Lord of Light vs. Roman Pantheon and Christianity

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 In Game of Thrones, religion is a topic sparks (literally-hehe) controversy, allies, and enemies. The Faith of Seven (shown as a seven pointed star) includes seven deities, the Iron Islands have the Drowned God, the North has the Old Gods, and the newest addition- the Lord of Light. The similarities between theses deities and ancient gods can be seen in every region, but within ancient Rome they are as follows:

  • The Father (JUPITER) represents divine justice, and judges the souls of the dead.
  • The Mother (JUNO) represents mercy, peace, fertility, and childbirth. She is sometimes referred to as “the strength of women”.
  • The Maiden (DIANA) represents purity, love, and beauty.
  • The Crone: (CERES) represents wisdom and foresight. She is represented carrying a lantern.
  • The Warrior:  (MARS) represents strength and courage in battle.
  • The Smith: (VULCAN) represents creation and craftsmanship.
  • The Stranger: (PLUTO)represents death and the unknown. It is rarely prayed to.

These seven deities which are the most popular in Westeros and reflect (as I have implied) the Roman pantheon. The other two gods are as followed:

  • The Drowned God:  (NEPTUNE) represent maritime skills and seafaring ability.
  • The Old Gods of the Forest:  (TITANS)  represent a personal and less structured deity/religion than other religions, though some basic social violations are proscribed by it, such as kinslaying, incest, and bastardy. It also upholds the laws of hospitality.

The Old Gods seem reminiscent to the idea of “the natural order” of things. This is why I say they are symbolic for the nature and primordial titans: Cronus , Rhea, Oceanus, Themis, Hyperion (and I would include Uranus and Gaia).

All of these deities being old and ancient, but within the series become undermined by the upcoming religion of R’hllor:

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  • R’hllor: The Lord of Light: (CHRISTIANITY) is a centered belief in the existence of a single, all-powerful god. R’hllor  or The Lord of Light (Judeo-Christian God) is the god of fire, which provides light, heat, and life, and struggles against darkness, cold, and death, represented by an opposing deity, the Great Other (Devil, Satan, Evil). He is often referred to as the “one true god.”

The following was said of The Lord of Light by George R.R. Martin:

The R’hllor religion is strongly influenced by the real-life religion of Zoroastrianism. The central element it borrows is that it is a ditheistic religion: there is one true, “Good” God, locked in eternal combat with an evil deity. As part of this dualism R’hllor, who embodies light, fire, and heat, is opposed on the level of primordial forces by the “Great Other” who embodies cold and darkness.

 5) Wild Fire vs. Greek Fire

In Game of Thrones, wildfire is a dangerous liquid which can explode with tremendous force and burns with a fire that water cannot extinguish, only large quantities of sand. Wildfire is identifiable through the distinctive green hue of its flames. Even in its stored liquid state it gives off a green color.

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In reality, George R.R. Martin most likely took inspiration from Greek Fire:

Greek fire in use against another ship.

Greek fire in use against another ship. Courtesy of WikiCommons & Amandajm.

Greek fire was an incendiary weapon used by the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. It was typically used it in naval battles to great effect as it could continue burning while floating on water. It provided a technological advantage, and was responsible for many key military victories. Although the term “Greek fire” has been general in English and most other languages since the Crusades, in the original Byzantine sources it is called by a variety of names, such as “sea fire,” “Roman fire,” “war fire,” “liquid fire,” or “manufactured fire.”

GAME OF THRONES & ANCIENT ROME: PART II

Next week, we will be looking at Tyrion Lannister, the map of Westeros, animal symbolism, the Night’s Watch, Jon Snow, the King’s Guard, and more!