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Today we will finish talking about cases. The two that we have left is Locative (miejscownik) and Vocative (wołacz).
Locative Case (o czym? o kim?)
Locative indicates a location and is required after the prepositions w in, na (on, at), o (about), po (after), przy (near, during, while)
Ona jest teraz w szkole Now she is at school -Loc.
Po kolacji idziemy do kina After dinner-Loc. we are going to the movie.
Muszę kupić znaczki na poczcie I have to buy stamps at the post-office-Loc.
Biblioteka stoi przy ulicy Wars The library is next to Wars Street-Loc.
There are several different locative endings in Polish:
Vocative Case (O!)
The vocative case is the case used for a noun identifying the person (animal, object, etc.) being addressed and/or occasionally the determiners of that noun. A vocative expression is an expression of direct address, wherein the identity of the party being spoken to is set forth expressly within a sentence.
Feminine nouns usually take -o, except those ending in -sia, -cia, -nia, and -dzia which take -u, and those ending in -ść which take -i.
Masculine nouns generally follow the complex pattern of the locative case, with the exception of a handful of words such as Bóg → Boże (“God”), ojciec → ojcze (“father”) and chłopiec → chłopcze (“boy”).
Neuter nouns and all plural nouns are the same as in the nominative case.
Usually, the Nominative case functions as a de facto Vocative:
Adam, chodź tu! (Adam -Nom., come here!).
Asia, przynieś książki! (Asia – Nom. bring books)
However, in conjunction with titles, the Vocative is obligatory:
Dzień dobry, panie profesorze! (Hello, professsor-Voc.!).
In addition, the vocative remains prevalent:
The vocative is also often employed in affectionate and endearing contexts such as
Kocham Cię Mamo! (“I love you Mom!”)
Tęsknię za Tobą, moja Żono. (“I miss you, my wife.”)
I think we covered everything. If I missed anything or if you have questions, please let me know in comments below. It will probably take a little time and a lot of patience to understand and remember all of it, but don’t give up!
Do następnego razu! (Till next time…)