Formation of Adverbs

Posted on 23. Feb, 2012 by in Grammar, Languages, Vocabulary

Recently my husband and my daughter had some problems with formatting adverbs, so I thought it will be a great idea for today’s post!

Adverbs (przysłówki) formed from adjectives end in -o or -‘e (with e preceded by softening), for example tanio (cheaply) from tani (cheap),  drogo (dearly) from drogi (dear), gęsto (thickly) from gęsty (thick), dobrze (well) from dobry (good), źle (badly) from zły (bad).

Generally speaking, adjectives whose stems end in a soft consonant (miękka spółgłoska) or in k, g, ch take the ending -o; most others, especially adjectives with stems ending in a consonant plus -ny, take -‘e. However, many or even most common adjectives form adverbs in -o regardless of the general pattern, as gęsty gęsto above.

Adverbs have comparative (stopień wyższy) and superlative (najwyższy stopień) forms in -‘ej and naj- + -‘ej, respectively, as in:

ciepły warm,  ciepło warmly,  cieplej more warmly,  najcieplej most warmly

zimny cold,  zimno cold,  zimniej colder , najzimniej most cold

Some formations are irregular. Here are the positive, comparative and superlative adverbial forms of some common adjectives:

bliski (near), blisko, bliżej, najbliżej

bogaty (rich), bogato, bogaciej, najbogaciej

brzydki (ugly), brzydko, brzydziej, najbrzydziej

chory (sick), choro, bardziej choro, najbardziej choro

ciekawy (interesting), ciekawie, ciekawiej, najciekawiej

częsty (frequent), często, częściej, najczęściej

dobry (good), dobrze, lepiej, najlepiej

duży large, big, dużo, więcej, najwięcej

lekki (light), lekko, lżej, najlżej

pracowity (industrious), pracowicie, bardziej pracowicie, najbardziej pracowicie

wczesny (early), wcześnie, wcześniej, najwcześniej

wysoki (tall, high), wysoko, wyżej, najwyżej

zły (bad), źle, gorzej, najgorzej

Words often occurring with comparatives, both adjectival and adverbial, are jeszcze (even more), coraz (more and more), and o wiele (by a lot):

Ten obraz jest piękny, ale tamten jest jeszcze piękniejszy. That painting is beautiful, but that other one is even more beautiful.

Ona wygląda coraz młodziej. She looks younger and younger.

Pogoda robi się coraz cieplejsza. The weather is getting warmer and warmer.

Ten sos jest o wiele ostrzejszy, niż tamten. That sauce is a lot more spicy than that the other one.

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Please let me know if you have questions:)

Tomorrow a little more about non-adjectival adverbs!

Do następnego razu… (Till next time…)


“People’s Oskar” award

Posted on 22. Feb, 2012 by in Arts, Countries, Culture, Famous people, Media, Movies, music

Few would confuse the glitz of the Academy Awards with a ceremony held by a folk arts society in Poland, but Hollywood doesn’t want anyone else handing out Oscars.

So the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences is demanding that Poland’s Association of Folk Artists stop giving out what it calls the “People’s Oskar.”

Waldemar Majcher of the Association of Folk Artists said Monday the dispute is the result a misunderstanding. But he also questioned Hollywood’s demand.

Majcher said the “People’s Oskar,” was named after Oskar Kolberg, a 19th-century Polish ethnographer who wrote some 10,000 Polish folk songs. Still remembered and respected in Poland, Kolberg died in 1890.

In its 10-year history, the “People’s Oskar” — a metal plaque with an engraved image of Jesus — has been awarded to individual artists, museums, folk festivals and even a bread fair.

Last week, Majcher said, he received a letter from Polish lawyers representing the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences protesting the use of the name “Oscar” in its Polish spelling “Oskar.”

The letter from Wardynski and Partners — which Majcher read to The Associated Press — demands the Association of Folk Artists stop using that name and said the academy had obtained protection of the “Oscar” trademark in Poland in a law adopted in 2000.

The letter said the “verbal trademark Oscar … is inseparably associated with the Academy Awards.”

“The letter gave us a scare, but we are receiving plenty of encouragement from people,” Majcher said, adding that in some ways members of his association are impressed that “such a big institution got interested in our modest project.”

He said a team of lawyers is preparing a response defending the use of the name People’s Oskar.

Do następnego razu… (Till next time…)

Traditional Pączki

Posted on 21. Feb, 2012 by in cooking, Culture, food

Donuts are a traditional food the week before Lent or the Tuesday before Ash Wednesday. For many Polish families pączki are a treat for Sundays, holidays and other special occasions.

They have long been my favorite.I tried to make them few times, but none have ever come up to the hundreds made by my mother during my childhood.
The following pączki recipe is one that I have come up with by trying different ones in Polish cookbooks. This is the hard part of writing down a yeast recipe. I watched my mom so much that I knew what that dough should be like. If you have never made yeast dough before, just knead and add flour until the dough becomes easy to handle, but not tough.

A plate of donuts with steaming coffee, tea, or chocolate will delight everyone. Anytime from now until hot weather is good pączki weather, so try them now.

Good luck!

Prep Time: 45 minutes

Cook Time: 6 minutes

2 rises: 3 hours

Total Time: 3 hours, 51 minutes

Makes 2 dozen

Ingredients:

1 1/2 cups warm milk (no warmer than 110 degrees)

2 packages active dry yeast (remember to proof yeast before you begin)

1/2 cup sugar

4 ounces (1 stick) room-temperature butter

1 large room-temperature egg

3 large room-temperature egg yolks

1 tablespoon brandy or rum

1 teaspoon salt

4 1/2 to 5 cups all-purpose flour

1 gallon oil for deep frying

Granulated sugar (optional)

Confectioner’s sugar (optional)

Fruit paste for filling (optional)

Preparation:

Add yeast to warm milk, stir to dissolve and set aside. In a large bowl or stand mixer fitted with the paddle attachment, cream together sugar and butter until fluffy. Beat in eggs, brandy and salt until well-incorporated.

Still using the paddle attachment, add 4 1/2 cups flour alternately with the milk-yeast mixture and beat for 5 or more minutes by machine and longer by hand until smooth.  If too soft, add remaining 1/2 cup flour, but no more.

Place dough in a greased bowl. Cover and let rise until doubled in bulk, anywhere from 1 to 2 1/2 hours. Punch down and let rise again.

Turn dough out onto lightly floured surface. Pat or roll to 1/2-inch thickness. Cut rounds with 3-inch biscuit cutter. Remove scraps, and re-roll and re-cut. Cover and let rounds rise until doubled in bulk, 30 minutes or longer.

Heat oil to 350 degrees in large skillet or Dutch oven. Place pączki top-side down (the dry side) in the oil a few at a time and fry 2 to 3 minutes or until bottom is golden brown. Flip them over and fry another 1 to 2 minutes or until golden brown. Make sure the oil doesn’t get too hot so the exterior doesn’t brown before the interior is done. Test a cool one to make sure it’s cooked through. Adjust cooking time and oil heat accordingly.

Drain pączki on paper towels or brown paper bags, and roll in granulated sugar while still warm. Note: You can poke a hole in the side of the pączki and, using a pastry bag, squeeze in a dollop of the filling of choice. Then dust filled pączki with granulated sugar, confectioners’ sugar or glaze.

Smacznego!

Do następnego razu… (Till next time…)