Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Urdu: خیبر پختونخوا ), locally called Pukhtunkhwa (literally “area of Pashtuns”) or KP, and formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province and various other names, is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, located in the north-west of the country. It borders the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) to the west and south, Gilgit–Baltistan to the north-east, Azad Jammu and Kashmir to the east and Punjab and the Islamabad Capital Territory to the south-east, while Afghanistan lies to the north-west. The main ethnic group in the province is the Pashtun people. The principal language is Pashto spoken by the majority as first language, while Urdu, the official language, is widely spoken as second language and used as the main literary language. The provincial capital and largest city is Peshawar. The province has an area of 28,773 mi² or (74,521 km²) comparable in size to New England in North America. The province’s main districts are Peshawar, Mardan, Charsadda Dera Ismail Khan, Lakki Marwat, Kohistan, Kohat, Abbottabad, Haripur and Mansehra, Swat, Buner District, Bannu and Karak. Peshawar, Mardan, Kohat, Abbottabad, Dera Ismail Khan and Hangu are the main cities.
The region varies in topography from dry rocky areas in the south to forests and green plains in the north. The climate can be extreme with intensely hot summers to freezing cold winters. Despite these extremes in weather, agriculture remains important and viable in the area. The climate of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa varies immensely for a region of its size, encompassing most of the many climate types found in Pakistan. The province stretching southwards from the Baroghil Pass in the Hindu Kush covers almost six degrees of latitude; it is mainly a mountainous region. Dera Ismail Khan is one of the hottest places in the South Asia while in the mountains to the north the weather is temperate in the summer and intensely cold in the winter. The air is generally very dry and consequently the daily and annual range of temperature is quite large. Rainfall also varies widely. Although large parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are typically dry, the province also contains the wettest parts of Pakistan in its eastern fringe.