Pakistan’s Nuclear Program

Posted on 07. Aug, 2014 by in Uncategorized

Pakistan’s national security necessities and compulsions due to tense regional environment forced it to pursue a nuclear capability that balances India. It has managed to institutionalize a robust command and control structure to ensure the complete safety, security, and effectiveness of its nuclear program – both civil and military – and has increasingly sought to cooperate with various international efforts on nuclear safety, security, and non-proliferation. Pakistan has sought to seek a strategic balance with India in lieu of New Delhi’s superior conventional military strength, its Ballistic Missiles Defense developments, military space development and growing strategic capabilities increasingly becoming China-centric without ignoring Pakistan on its west.

By combining elements of conventional and strategic forces, Pakistan’s Full Spectrum Deterrence has become pertinent to address its security compulsions towards not just India, but also address internal security challenges for ensuring state writ and control. Furthermore, peace with India and any strategic stability attempts goes back to solving the age-old bilateral issues that have been plaguing Pak-India ties since 1947 in which both sides will have to give concessions on their respective stances in order to ensure peace.

Similarly, there are misperceptions regarding Pakistan induction of Tactical Nuclear Weapons into its nuclear arsenal as the tactical weapons need to be deployed forward in the battle zone. Although, it is safe to assume that decision to deploy TNWs will be taken by the National Command Authority and it would be handled by the tri-service Strategic Forces Commands.  But, since these have to be deployed on the battle zone their control has to be delegated down the military command chain vertically. This could eventually render the delegation independent of the central command authority. For the timely deployment of TNWs, command and control of these weapons would need to be decentralized. Such weapons make sense only when they are deployed on the borders (on the battle zone) for quick and early use. The decision to use TNWs would rest with the officers lower down the hierarchy, present on the battlefields. In this scenario the ‘intent of the employer’ and also, the ‘decision-making ability of the employer’ play an extremely crucial role. These increases the chances of pre-emptive launch by the field commanders because of the fear of what we call it ‘use it or lose it’ dilemma.

Credibility is a vital ingredient for a state’s deterrence capability to work. Credibility is based on perceptions of both sides to ensure the fear of nuclear destruction keeps them away from a war. However, Pakistan’s internal security challenges, doctrinal opacity, accusations of proliferation, safety & security and arsenal developments have raised suspicion, concern, and accusations that aim to undermine its deterrence stability. Many Indian, Western, and even domestic writers maintain that Pakistan’s deterrence is not credible enough and poses significant security risks. Many of these perceptions are as a result of major powers like US regarding the emergence of smaller nuclear-capable states as a threat to their interests in the region.

Pakistan has taken numerous steps in order to showcase itself as a responsible nuclear weapons state. It has gradually brought more transparency in its nuclear safety and security, established an elaborate command and control system, proactively participated in international nuclear forums, and its efforts have been recognized and appreciated by numerous states and global think tanks as that of a responsible nuclear state.

 

Urdu Idioms

Posted on 31. Jul, 2014 by in Uncategorized

English Translation/English Idiom Urdu Idioms
In addition to اضافی طور پر ۔
Out of sight نظر سے اوجھل ۔
Utmost try بھر پور کوشش ۔
Permission to express freely آزادانہ اظہار کی اجازت ۔
To live in  رہائش رکھنا ۔
Newly acquired نیا حاصل شدہ ۔
Too much rest makes one useless حد سے زیادہ آرام ناکارہ بنا دیتا ہے ۔
Nip in the bud ابتدائی مرحلے میں ختم کرنا ۔
Ready to act عمل کے لیے تیار ۔
Counting the chickens before they hatch آئندہ کے غیر یقینی واقعہ پر بہت زیادہ انحصار کر لینا ۔
Fore-Warned, Fore-Armed خطرے سے آگاہی ہو تو انسان مقابلے کے لئے تیار رہتا ہے ۔
To become an adult بالغ ہو جانا ۔
Peace is more powerful than war صلح میں جنگ سے زیادہ طاقت ہے ۔
Pride is the enemy of contentment غرور قناعت کا جانی دشمن ہے ۔
Haste makes waste جلدی کام شیطان کا ہے ۔
It’s impossible to replace a true friend سچے دوست کا بدل ناممکن ۔
No one would remember God if there were no devil اگر شیطان نہ ہوتا تو اللہ کو کون یاد رکھتا ؟
Old shoes are comfortable پُرانے جوتے آرام دہ ہوتے ہیں ۔
To pay a visit جانا اور ملنا ۔
Love teaches patience محبت صبر و تحمل سکھاتی ہے ۔
Do in Rome as the Romans do جیسا دیس ویسا بھیس ۔
No one can do everything ہر ایک کام ہر ایک آدمی نہیں کر سکتا ۔
An ounce of justice is better than a ton of prayer تولہ بھر انصاف من بھر دُعا سے اچھا ہے ۔
Sensual pleasure مادی مزا ۔
To act عمل کرنا ۔
To become a good man اچھا آدمی بننا ۔
Prevention is better than cure پرہیز علاج سے بہتر ہے ۔
Trust breeds trust اعتبار سے عموماً اعتبار پیدا ہوتا ہے ۔

Mohatta Palace

Posted on 30. Jul, 2014 by in Uncategorized

The Mohatta Palace (pic by Benny Lin on Flickr.com)

The Mohatta Palace (pic by Benny Lin on Flickr.com)

Clifton, Karachi is known to be home to the wealthiest families of the city. It has long been that way, in fact. Clifton used to be the preferred destination among well-off people when it came to residence, long before Partition as well. In the ’70s and afterwards, the area was famous for housing Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto’s residence, 70 Clifton. There is particularly a certain building in Clifton which looks like a palace and is a very popular attraction for anyone who comes here — the Mohatta Palace.

Currently a centre for cultural activities, the Mohatta Palace was constructed by a wealthy businessman of Karachi, Shivratan Chandraratan Mohatta. The story behind the construction of the Mohatta Palace is an interesting tale of love. It reminds many of the story of Taj Mahal, which is one of the seven wonders of the world and was built on the orders of the Mughal emperor Shah Jehan in ‘loving memory of his wife’.

The difference is that Shah Jehan built Taj Mahal after his wife died, while Mohatta had the palace built in order to save his wife from dying. In 1927, Shivratan Mohatta, a successful Marwari entrepreneur, commissioned a palatial house in the affluent seaside neighborhood of Clifton. The architect commissioned for the assignment was Ahmed Hussein Agha, one of the first Muslim architects of India. He came from Jaipur to take up the assignment.

It is said that the reason behind its commission was a serious illness that Mohatta’s wife suffered from. Doctors had told Mohatta that the refreshing winds of the sea would cure his wife’s illness. Thus, Shivratan had this fascinating bungalow built in the previous century in Clifton, covering a very large area.

After Partition, the palace was handed over to Fatima Jinnah, sister of the founder of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah. After her demise, the Government of Sindh took over the building.  Another interesting fact about Mohatta Palace is that it was a centre for the movement against [Field Marshal] Ayub Khan (then President, Pakistan). It was at the palace that Fatima Jinnah announced her candidature in the presidential election against Ayub Khan, opening her campaign. There would be many a meeting here, too, in order to devise political strategies against the military ruler.

Fatima Jinnah breathed her last in the Mohatta Palace. She was found dead in her room one morning. Many believe it had something to do with Ayub Khan and his lobby because of the mysterious circumstances it happened in. However, like all political deaths in Pakistan, from Liaquat Ali Khan to Benazir Bhutto, Fatima Jinnah’s death is still a mystery.

The official name of the palace is Qasr-e-Fatima. However, as with many such places in the country and the region, no one knows it by that name as it is still known to the world as the Mohatta Palace.