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It is probably something that is not talked about much – but different in every country. When I was in the United States (I was in Arkansas), I was shocked by
In Germany, we separate our waste generally in Restmüll (residual waste), Bioabfall (biowaste), Gartenabfall (garden waste), Altpapier (paper waste), Altglas (glass waste), and Grüner Punkt (Green Dot) waste. The Grüner Punkt labels the so-called Leichtstoffverpackungen (LVP) (Lightweight Packaging). This LVP is already enough prepared by the producer for recycling that it does not have to be taken back, but can be disposed of. That is many kinds of plastic and some aluminum, like most packaging you find in products.
This LVP is collected in the Gelbe Sack (Yellow Bag), or in some cities, the Gelbe Tonne (Yellow Bin). This Gelbe Sack is available for free in supermarkets!
Altpapier is gathered in the Papiertonne (Paper bin). This includes anything that is paper.
Restmüll includes everything that cannot be categorized in the other types of waste. These are things such as Babywindeln (baby diapers), Staub (dust), or Asche (ash).
Bioabfall is organic waste, so anything plant-based or animal-based, that can be broken down and eaten by microorganisms and enzymes. You get the point :).
That includes all waste you can put in your bins. But there is other waste too, of course.
You can put your Altglas in the Altglascontainer (glass waste container), which are made available by the municipality. Altglas is separated in Weißglas (white glass) and Buntglas (colored glass). Buntglass can be further divided in Braunglas (brown glass) and Grünglas (green glass). The same counts for the Altkleidersammlung (old clothes collection). You can bag your clothes and just put them in there. Even shoes!
Furthermore, there is Sperrmüll (bulky waste). This includes furniture that is too large for the bins or is not suitable for it by its nature. Sperrmüll can be put on your sidewalk, and will be picked up by a truck. However, before the truck comes, many people come with Anhänger (trailers) and Kleinbusse (minibuses) to pick up what they think is still usable.
Batteries, lamps and other electronic waste can be disposed of in bins made available in some supermarkets and electronics stores.
All of this is strictly managed in the law. Burning your waste is strictly prohibited. Well, of course you can use wood to fire up your Kamin (fireplace), but you may not burn plastic, for example. I observed that with great disbelief in the United States.
How is waste management coordinated in your country or area?