LearnUrduwith Us!

Start Learning!

Urdu Language Blog

Alphabets in Urdu Posted by on Aug 21, 2013 in Uncategorized

The Urdu language developed during the Mughal Empire under the influence of Persian and, to a lesser extent, of Arabic and Turkic languages on the Hindi dialects of North-central India. A modification of the Persian alphabet was developed to suit this language. Despite the invention of the Urdu typewriter in 1911, Urdu newspapers continued to be published from handwritten scripts by masters (called katibs or khush-navees) until the late 1980s. The Pakistani national newspaper Daily Jang was the first Urdu newspaper to use Nasta’liq computer-based composition. There are efforts under way to develop more sophisticated and user-friendly Urdu support on computers and the internet. Nowadays, nearly all Urdu newspapers, magazines, journals, and periodicals are composed on computers via various Urdu software programs.

A list of the letters of the Urdu alphabet and their pronunciation is given below. Urdu contains many historical spellings from Arabic and Persian, and therefore has many irregularities. The Arabic letters yaaand haa both have two variants in Urdu: one of the yaa variants is used at the ends of words for the sound [i], and one of the haa variants is used to indicate the aspirated consonants. The retroflex consonants needed to be added as well; this was accomplished by placing a superscript ط (to’e) above the corresponding dental consonants. Several letters which represent distinct consonants in Arabic are conflated in Persian, and this has carried over to Urdu. Some of the original Arabic letters are not used in Urdu. This is the list of the Urdu letters, giving the consonant pronunciation. Many of these letters also represent vowel sounds.

Letter

Name of Letter

Transcription

ا

alif

ب

be

b

پ

pe

p

ت

te

t

ٹ

ṭe

ث

se

s

ج

jīm

j

چ

che

ch

ح

baṛī he

h

خ

khe

kh

د

dāl

d

ڈ

ḍāl

ذ

zāl

dh

ر

re

r

ڑ

ṛe

ز

ze

z

ژ

zhe

zh

س

sīn

s

ش

shīn

sh

ص

su’ād

ض

zu’ād

ط

to’e

t

ظ

zo’e

ع

‘ain

غ

ghain

gh

ف

fe

f

ق

qāf

q

ک

kāf

k

گ

gāf

g

ل

lām

l

م

mīm

m

ن

nūn

n

و

vā’o

v, o, or ū

ہ

choṭī he

h

ھ

do chashmī he

h

ء

hamza

ی

ye

y, i

ے

bari ye

ai or e

 

 

 

 

Reference: Wikipedia

Share this:
Pin it

About the Author:Nauman

I was born and raised in Pakistan and moved to the United States in 2004. I love writing about the Urdu language highlighting the peculiarities about the cultural, traditions, social events, places and personalities in Pakistan.


Comments:

  1. mumtaz:

    thanx for all concern, now i want to know that how much words are there in urdu (currently use)
    Thanx

  2. Muhammad ali:

    Good information.


Leave a comment: