LearnUrduwith Us!Start Learning!
Islamabad (Urdu: اسلام آباد) is the capital of Pakistan and the ninth largest city in the country. When Pakistan gained independence in 1947, the city of Karachi was its first capital. In 1958, a commission was constituted to select a suitable site for the national capital with particular emphasis on location, climate, logistics, and defense requirements along with other attributes. After extensive study, research, and a thorough review of potential sites, the commission recommended the area northeast of the city of Rawalpindi in 1959 which is now Islamabad.
In 1960, Islamabad was constructed as a forward capital for several reasons. Traditionally, development in Pakistan was focused on the colonial centre of Karachi, and then president Ayub Khan wanted it to be equally distributed. Moreover, Karachi having warm and humid weather conditions was located at one end of the country, making it vulnerable to attacks from the Arabian Sea. A capital which was easily accessible from all parts of the country was needed. A Greek firm of architects, Konstantinos Apostolos Doxiadis, designed the master plan of the city which was based on a grid plan and triangular in shape, with its apex towards the famous Margala Hills. The capital was not moved directly from Karachi to Islamabad; it was first shifted temporarily to Rawalpindi in the early sixties and then to Islamabad when the essential development works was completed in 1966.
The population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.15 million as of 2011. A relatively quiet city, Islamabad consists of mainly Federal Government offices, Parliament House, the official residences of the President and Prime Minister along with the Diplomatic Enclave, an area next to the Parliament House dedicated to foreign embassies and missions appointed in Pakistan. The city is home to Faisal Mosque, the largest mosque in South Asia and the fourth largest mosque in the world. Islamabad has the highest literacy rate in Pakistan and is home to the some of the top-ranked universities in Pakistan.