Hindi Language Blog

Suffixes (प्रत्यय) – Contd Posted by on Apr 28, 2011 in Hindi Language

In continuation of the topic of suffixes, in this lesson I would like to present the second major group of suffixes in Hindi.

2. Suffixes for declension (तद्धित प्रत्यय – Taddhit Pratyy)

Those suffixes which add to noun, pronoun, adjective etc to form new words are called तद्धित प्रत्यय (Suffix for Declension)

These suffixes are further divided into 3 groups.

A) Suffixes from Hindi : These suffixes are from Hindi and they are of 4 types.

a) Suffixes that make Abstract nouns (भाववाचक संज्ञा)

Suffix Noun Noun+ Suffix = Abstract Nouns (भाववाचक संज्ञा)
आई (aayi) चतुर (clever), भला (kind) चतुराई (intelligence), भलाई (well being)
पन (pan) लड़का (boy), बालक (child) लड़कपन (adulthood), बालपन (childhood)
आस (aas) खट्टा (bitter), मीठा (sweet) खटास (bitterness), मिठास (sweetness)

b) Suffixes that make adjectives (विशेषण)

Suffix Noun Noun+ Suffix = Adjectives (विशेषण)
लु (lu) कृपा (generosity) , दया (kindness) कृपालु (generous), दयालु (kind)
ई (i) धन (money), क्रोध (anger) धनि (rich), क्रोधी (angry)
ऊ (uh) बाजार (market) बाजारू (marketable)

c) Suffixes that make Genitive case (सम्बन्धवाचक) of the noun (संज्ञा)

Suffix Noun Noun+ Suffix = Genitive Case (सम्बन्धवाचक)
आल (aal) ससुर (father-in-law) ससुराल (in-laws’ house)
हाल (hal)) नानी (maternal grandmother) ननिहाल (mat. grandmothers house)
एरा (era) मामा (mat. uncle), चाचा (pat. uncle) ममेरा (belonging to mat. uncle), चचेरा ((belonging to pat. uncle)

d) Suffixes that make Nominative case (करतावाचक) of the noun (संज्ञा)

Suffix Noun
Noun + Suffix = Nominative case (करतावाचक)
आर (aar) सोना (gold), लोहा (iron) सुनार (jeweler), लुहार (smith)
इया (iya) रसोई (kitchen), दुःख (sorrow) रसोइया (chef), दुखिया (sad)
वाला (wala) फल (fruit) , घर (home) फलवाला (fruit retailer), घरवाला (house owner)

B) Suffixes from Sanskrit : These suffixes from Sanskrit are of 5 types.

a) Suffixes that make Abstract nouns (भाववाचक संज्ञा)

Suffix Adjective/Noun Adjective/Noun+ Suffix = Abstract Noun (भाववाचक संज्ञा)
इमा (ema) महा (great), गुरु (teacher) महिमा (Glory), गरिमा (Dignity)
ता (ta) बंधू (brother), गुरु (teacher) बंधुत्व (Brotherhood), गुरुत्व (Gravity)
य (y) स्वस्थ (healthy), पंडित (priest) स्वास्थ्य (health), पांडित्य (scholarship)

b) Suffixes that make the Nominative case (करतावाचक) of the noun (संज्ञा)

Suffix Noun Noun+ Suffix = Nominative case (करतावाचक)
ई (i) सुख (joy), शास्त्र (literature) सुखी (happy), शास्त्री (lit. scholar)
क (k) लेख (write up), लिपि (script) लेखक (writer), लिपिक (clerk)

c) Suffixes that make feminine from Masculine

Suffix Noun (Masc.)
Mas. Noun+ Suffix = Noun (Fem. )
आ (aa) छात्र (student), बाल (young) छात्रा (fem. student), बाला (fem. child)
ई (i) पुत्र (son) पुत्री (daughter)
आनी (aani) भव (magnificent) भवानी (goddess)

d) Suffixes that make adjectives (विशेषण)

Suffix Noun/Adjective Noun/Adjective+ Suffix = Adjective (विशेषण)
इक (ek) दिन (day), इतिहास (history) दैनिक (daily), ऐतिहासिक (historical)
ईन (in) रंग (color), कुल (family) रंगीन (colorful), कुलीन (noble)
शाली (shali) बल (force), शक्ति (energy) बलशाली (strong), शक्तिशाली (powerful)

e) Suffixes that make adverb (क्रिया विशेषण)

Suffix Noun/Adjective Noun/Adjective+ Suffix = Adverb (क्रिया विशेषण)
तया (tya) साधारण (common), विशेष (special) साधारणता (simplicity), विशेष्यता (specialty)
था (tha) सर्व (everything), अन्य (other) सर्वथा (always), अन्यथा (otherwise)
पूर्वक (purvak) विधि (method), दया (kindness) विधिपूर्वक (methodical), दयापूर्वक (Kindly)

C) Suffixes from Urdu (Arabic, Persian etc)

Suffix Noun/Adjective Noun/Adjective+ Suffix = Noun (संज्ञा)
गर (gar) मदद (help) मददगार (helpful)
ईन (in) नमक (salt) नमकीन (salty)
इयत (iyat) इन्सान (human) इंसानियत (humanity)
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About the Author: Nitin Kumar

Nitin Kumar is a native Hindi speaker from New Delhi, India. His education qualification include Masters in Robotics and Bachelors in Mechanical Engineering. Currently, he is working in the Research and Development in Robotics in Germany. He is avid language learner with varied level of proficiency in English, German, Spanish, and Japanese. He wish to learn French one day. His passion for languages motivated him to share his mother tongue, Hindi, and culture and traditions associated with its speakers. He has been working with Transparent Language since 2010 and has written over 430 blogs on various topics on Hindi language and India, its culture and traditions. He is also the Administrator for Hindi Facebook page which has a community of over 330,000 members.