Rocky Mountain National Park

Posted on 29. Jul, 2014 by in English Language, English Vocabulary, Travel

Name:  Rocky Mountain National Park

Year Established: 1915

Location: Colorado, USA

High up in the mountains.

High up in the mountains.

Season: Open year-round. Visitor Center hours vary by season.

Cost: $20 for private vehicle, $10 for motorcycles, cyclists and hikers (good for 7 days)

Accommodation:  There are only a few campgrounds inside the park. Nearby communities offer guest houses and hotels.

Beautiful scenery of the Rockies.

Beautiful scenery of the Rockies.

Waterfalls at Wild Basin.

Waterfalls at Wild Basin.

Brief Description: Rocky Mountain National Park has elevations ranging from 8,000 feet (2,400 meters) to 14,000 feet (4,200 meters) so it’s understandable why so many visitors feel like they’re on top of the world. The park is home to diverse climates and environments such as wooded forests and mountain tundra. Many types of wildlife can also be seen here. The most common are mule deer, elk, bighorn sheep, yellow-bellied marmot, black bears, mountain lions and moose. There’s 359 miles (578 km) of trails, 450 miles (720 km) of stream and 150 lakes. It also contains 72 mountain peaks that are named and rise to over 12,000 feet (3,657 kms). The tallest peak in the park is called Longs Peak and many people try to climb it every year.

View from above Lily Lake.

View from above Lily Lake.

Elk roaming free in Rocky Mtn. National Park.

Elk roaming free in Rocky Mtn. National Park.

Personal Experience: Our visit was short but sweet because we just did a day trip from Denver, the capital city of Colorado. There’s not really any public transport in the park so it’s best to have a car. We rented a car in the city and spent our day stopping at different short trails, lakes and viewpoints. Our first short hike was to a waterfall. It was beautiful but it started to rain so we jumped back in the car and continued on our way. Our next two hikes were on trails that went around lakes.

One of the many beautiful lakes in the park

One of the many beautiful lakes in the park

We spotted many elk from the car roaming free across the beautiful landscape. There are many more options for hiking and taking in views so if you have the time it would be better to camp in the park for a few days or get a hotel room in one of the many communities surrounding the park. After our day trip to the park we returned to Denver to watch the Rockies, Colorado’s major league baseball team.

A cloudy day over Bear Lake.

A cloudy day over Bear Lake.

Inside the ballpark, watching the other Rockies.

Inside the ballpark, watching the other Rockies.

English vocabulary for time, history, and eras.

Posted on 28. Jul, 2014 by in English Vocabulary

 

Image "Time" by Fabíola Medeiros on Flickr.com.

Image “Time” by Fabíola Medeiros on Flickr.com.

We divide time up in many ways, for example:

seconds

minutes (60 seconds = 1 minute)

hours (60 minutes = 1 hour)

days

months (28-31 days = 1 month)

years (12 months = 1 year)

decades (1 decade = 10 years)

centuries (1 century = 100 years)

This type of vocabulary for talking about time is rather common, but there are other ways to divide up time, and additional words to talk about time in English, which we are going to look at today. First let’s see two common terms for dividing up most of human history.

Anno Domini (AD)

Before Christ/Before Common Era (BC)

These are terms used to label or number years in the Gregorian calendar, which is the calendar used in America and most of Europe. The term Anno Domini is Latin and translates in English to ‘In the year of the Lord.’ These terms are used to talk about eras (era = a long period of time) in human history. These two terms are based on the year of the birth of Jesus Christ (who is considered the incarnation of the “the Lord” in Christianity).

AD is used for counting years from the start of this current era in which we live. BC is used for counting years before the start of the current era. The years in the BC era are counted backwards from the way in which the years are counted in the AD era. There is no year zero in this system, so the year AD 1 immediately follows the year 1 BC.  Using this system we are now in the year 2014 AD.

Other ways of dividing time include naming eras or periods of time in history. Here are some commonly talked about periods of time and eras in the Western world that would be good to be familiar with.

The Middle Ages: This period of time took place in Europe from the 5th–15th century; this is the name for a long period of time that connects what is considered ‘ancient times’ and ‘modern times.’ It is in the middle of ancient times and modern times, so it is called the “middle” ages.

The Renaissance: This period of time took place in parts of Europe from 1300 – 1600; this time was characterized by a cultural movement that revolved around learning about and from the past.

The Age of Discovery (The Age of Exploration):  This period of time took place in Europe (and highly influenced other parts of the world) from 1400 – 1700; this was a time of exploration when Europeans travelled to new lands and “discovered” the Americas.

The Elizabethan Period: This period of time took place in the United Kingdom from 1558 – 1603; this was the period of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. This time is often thought of as the “golden age” or time of great progress in English history.

The Age of Enlightenment: This period of time took place in Europe in the 18th century; it is an often talked about cultural movement in Europe, which emphasized reason and individualism over traditions.

The Industrial Revolution: This period of time took place in Europe, the United States, and other areas around the world in the 18th and 19th centuries; this was the era in which manufacturing was introduced and became a very large force in society.

The Victorian Era: This period of time took place in the United Kingdom from 1837–1901; this was the period of the reign of Queen Victoria and was known for being a time of peace, prosperity, and British self-confidence and pride.

The Progressive Era: This period of time took place in the United States from the 1890s–1920s; this was a period of social activism and political reform during the terms of three progressive American Presidents: Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Woodrow Wilson.

The Information Age (or Computer Age or Digital Age): This is now! This is the name many people use for the era that we are currently living in, in which technology has become so important and prevalent in our everyday lives and work.

This is just a brief review of common terms used to describe periods of time in the Americas and Europe. There are, of course, many other ways of dividing up time, especially when talking about history.

It would be great if all those reading this post could add to this list by writing about an era from your own culture. Please leave a comment below and we can continue to grow our vocabulary about time.

Doctor, doctor give the news in English.

Posted on 24. Jul, 2014 by in English Vocabulary

Image "Doctors at General Assembly" by Waldo Jaquith on Flickr.com.

Image “Doctors at General Assembly” by Waldo Jaquith on Flickr.com.

There is a song in English that goes like this:

“Doctor, doctor give me the news I’ve got a bad case of lovin’ you No pill’s gonna cure my ill I’ve got a bad case of lovin’ you”

I think this song about doctors is a good introduction for us to look at the different English names for doctors that give patients news. These specialty names for doctors are good to know in case you ever need to see one of these doctors or if you want to become a doctor yourself.

First let me start out by saying the word “doctor” in English is usually used instead of the word ‘physician,’ by most native English speaker.  The word physician though is the more accurate word to describe a person who is qualified to practice medicine. A ‘doctor’ is a more general term used to describe a person who has received a doctorate education, but that doctoral education can be in any field, like physics or English. A medical doctor (MD) is synonymous with the word physician.

Now, let’s take a look at all the specialized physicians that are out there and what they do.

Anesthesiologist – A physician who administers drugs (usually called anesthesia) and monitors patients during surgeries.

Cardiologist – A physician who specializes in diseases of the heart and blood vessels.

Endocrinologist – A physician who diagnoses and treats disorders of the endocrine system, such as diabetes, hormone imbalances, or thyroid disease.

Gastroenterologist – A physician who specializes in diseases of the digestive system, such as in the stomach, intestines, or colon.

Hematologist – A hematologist specializes in diseases of the blood and bone marrow.

Oncologist – A physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of all types of cancers and tumors.

Neonatologist – A physician who cares for premature and ill newborn babies.

Nephrologist – A physician who specializes in diseases of the kidneys.

Neurologist – A neurologist specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the brain and nervous system.

Obstetrician/Gynecologist – A physician who specializes in the medical and surgical care of the female reproductive system.

Ophthalmologist – An ophthalmologist provides eye and vision care and surgery when needed.

Otolaryngologist – This is the technical name for an ear, nose, and throat physician, and Otolaryngologist is more commonly called an “ENT” (for ear, nose, and throat).

Pediatrician – This is a physician who specializes in the medical care of children.

Podiatrist – A physician who specializes in treating problems in the foot and ankle.

Pulmonologist – A physician who specializes in treating problems in the lungs.

Rheumatologist – A rheumatologist specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases of the joints (i.e. arthritis) and autoimmune disorders (i.e. lupus).

Other types of physicians you might hear of:

Family medicine doctor – A physician who provides continuing, comprehensive health care to individuals and families.

Primary Care Physician – This is a physician who is often the first contact person a patient has if they have questions about their health.  This physician also often provides continuing or regular care.

You may have noticed that many of the specialty doctor names listed above end with the suffix –ist. This is not a coincidence. The suffix –ist means ‘a person how practices or is concerned with something.’  It is often used when describing a profession.

If you were a doctor, which type would you like to be? Which type would you definitely not want to be?