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Tenses in Hindi Posted by on Jul 28, 2011 in Hindi Language

Today, I will show you the tenses in Hindi. Each of tenses are further divided into their sub-types. For better understanding, the examples are provided in Hindi and their translations are given in English.

भूतकाल (Past Tense)
In Hindi, past tenses are of 6 types:

1. सामान्य भूत (Past Indefinite Tense)
The past indefinite tense describe completion of an action that took place in the past.
Example: मैंने मिठाई खाई। (I ate sweets.)
2. आसन्न भूत (Recent Past Tense)
The recent Past tense describe completion of an action that took place over a period of time in the past.
Example: मैंने मिठाई खाई है। (I have eaten sweets.)
3. पूर्ण भूत (Past Perfect Tense)
The past perfect tense is used to indicate that an action occurred before another action in the past.
Example: मैंने मिठाई खाई थी। (I had eaten sweets.)
4. अपूर्ण भूत (Past Continuous Tense)
The past continuous tense is used to indicate an ongoing action occurring in the past.
Example: मैं मिठाई खा रहा था। (I had been eating sweet.)
5. संदिग्ध भूत (Doubtful Past Tense or Presumptive Perfect)
The doubtful past tense or presumptive perfect is used to indicate an action which might have or might have not occurred in the past.
Example: मैंने मिठाई खाई होगी। (I might have eaten sweets.)
6. हेतुहेतुमद भूत (Conditional Past Tense)
The conditional past tense is used to indicate occurrence of an action if certain condition would have met in the past.
Example: अगर में भूका होता तो मैंने मिठाई खाई होती। (If I had hunger I would have eaten sweets)
7. अभ्यस्त भूत (Habitual Past Tense)
The habitual past tense is used to indicate regular occurrence of an certain action in the past.
Example: मैं मिठाई खाया करता था। or मैं मिठाई ख़ाता था। (I used to eat sweets.)

वर्तमानकाल (Present Tense)
In Hindi, present tenses are of 3 types:

1. सामान्य वर्तमान (Present Indefinite Tense)
The present indefinite tense describe an action which take place in the present.
Example: मैं मिठाई खाता हूँ। (I eat sweets)
2. अपूर्ण वर्तमान (Present Continuous Tense)
The present continuous tense is used to indicate an ongoing action occurring in the present.
Example: मैं मिठाई खा रहा हूँ। ( I am eating sweets.)
3. संदिग्ध वर्तमान (Doubtful Present Tense)
The doubtful present tense is used to indicate an action which may or may not occur in the present.
Example: मैं मिठाई खा रहा होंगा। (I would be eating sweets.)

भविष्यत कल (Future Tense)
In Hindi, future tenses are of 2 types:

1. सामान्य भविष्यत (Future Indefinite Tense)
The future indefinite tense describe an action which will take place in the future.
Example: मैं मिठाई खाऊंगा। (I will eat sweets.)
2. संभाव्य भविष्यत (Doubtful Future Tense)
The doubtful future tense is used to indicate an action which may or may not occur in the future.
Example: शायद मैं मिठाई खाऊंगा। (Maybe I will eat sweets.)

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About the Author:Nitin Kumar

Nitin Kumar is a native Hindi speaker from New Delhi, India. His education qualification include Masters in Robotics and Bachelors in Mechanical Engineering. Currently, he is working in the Research and Development in Robotics in Germany. He is avid language learner with varied level of proficiency in English, German, Spanish, and Japanese. He wish to learn French one day. His passion for languages motivated him to share his mother tongue, Hindi, and culture and traditions associated with its speakers. He has been working with Transparent Language since 2010 and has written over 400 blogs on various topics on Hindi language and India, its culture and traditions. He is also the Administrator for Hindi Facebook page which has a community of over 330,000 members.

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Comments:

  1. Adrian:

    What about the habitual past, as in "Main mithaaii khaataa thaa?"

  2. Nitin:

    @Adrian Thanks you Adrian, I have added the habitual past tense that I have missed in the write up.

  3. Jeroen:

    You're missing the present perfect!!!! Here's a link to the explanation: http://www.learning-hindi.com/post/5457387996/lesson-110-the-present-perfect-tense

  4. Jeroen:

    Sorry me again, but I see that the present perfect already is present in your list of tenses. BUT I've something more to say. You don't actually make a difference between 'transitive' and 'intransitive' past tenses. Explanation: Link 1: http://www.learning-hindi.com/post/2301030235/lesson-79-transitivity Link 2: http://www.learning-hindi.com/post/2392152114/lesson-83-the-past-tense-for-transitive-verbs Link 3: http://www.learning-hindi.com/post/2350819002/lesson-81-the-past-tense-for-intransitive-verbs

  5. Nitin:

    @Jeroen Dear Jeroen, Of course, your point is valid about transitivity. Because, I have tried to explain all tenses in brief and with a single example (first person) for each tense, further details concerning tenses could not be covered in a single post. Perhaps I can write another post sometime explaining other finer details regarding tenses. Cheers, Nitin

  6. Luanna:

    Nice info, am learning Hindi and have already learnt a bt of tese yet I didn't know there was so much to learn yet.The doubtful present tense is really interseting, why Doubtful? Anyway taht has already been explained. Nice write up, the comments are great. Need Hindi translation check out Certifiedtranslationhindi

  7. Manju:

    Good post

  8. Rahul:

    this post helped me get 100 marks in hindi.

  9. Nitin Kumar:

    Congratulation Rahul! I am glad that this post helped you to achieve this feat! :)

  10. Uma Iyappan:

    Thanks, Its very useful. but it didn't copy them. becz this hindi font is not available there (mangal) . so u plz upload that fonts.

  11. Nitin Kumar:

    @Uma Iyappan Namaste Uma, You can find Mangal font on this web page: http://www.bharatdarshan.co.nz/hindi_font_downloads.html Nitin

  12. ashutosh dhiman:

    sir my english is week pls.i can not use tense properly in english sentence. i write or speak english very well...btu mjhe is am are will shall had have .in sabka use nhi karna ata sir please help me

  13. suman sharma:

    hi sir, my self suman i have a main problem that i known about the rule of grammer well but while speaking english i gets very-100 nervous so i dont understand what i did to make speak fluently my english . because i want to speak english language to another person.

  14. Mukesh Yadav:

    sir plzzz help me actually i have passed hsc but i can't speak proper engkish so plz suggests me which book refer for better speaking english

  15. Nitin Kumar:

    @Mukesh Yadav Namaste Mukesh, If you want to improve your spoken English, you must find some people with whom you can practice your English. In general, watch English movies, news, songs to improve your listening and pronunciation skills (to copy how a word is pronunced by their native speakers). Read English newspapers, magazine etc to improve your reading skills. And to improve your written English, you should try to write 1-2 pages of a topic and get them corrected by someone whose English is good. At last, try to learn all grammatic rules from a good book on English grammar.

  16. vk guru:

    good post

  17. SANJAYDUTT DIWAKAR:

    good sir

  18. sourabh:

    please explain modals

  19. dinesh mandavi:

    mujhe study krne me bahut maza Aaya

  20. ashwani:

    @suman sharma Try to read news paper and read it loduly in front of mirror.that can give you confidence to speak in front of many people.try it

  21. Omprakash Bishnoi Sahu:

    Very nice


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