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I recently visited Museum Of American History in Washington DC. I liked how all the presidents were listed chronologically. This gave me an idea for today’s blog. I will talk about Polish dukes and kings (king – król, kings – królowie) today and next time we will be talking about Polish presidents.
Before 1320 the Polish rulers were with a few exceptions not kings. They had instead the title “książę”, which can be translated to either prince or duke. In 1138 Poland was divided between different branches of the ruling dynasty into several autonomous principalities (autonomiczne księstwa). But the principality of Krakow would always belong to the senior member of each generation, who had supremacy (zwierzchnictwo) over all other principalities. This arrangement disintegrated (rozpadło się) in the period of 1180-1227 and the principality of Krakow became thereafter hereditary (później dziedzicznym), although its prince still retained nominal supremacy (nominalne zwierzchnictwo) over the other dukes.
Poland and Lithuania were 1569 united in a union with weak central power, its name (Rzeczpospolita) can be translated to either “the republic” or “the commonwealth”. This state could not defend itself when it was partitioned between Russia, Austria and Prussia 1772-1795. A Polish state was restored during the Napoleonic wars but it was transformed to Congress Poland 1815, which was in reality an autonomous part of the Russian empire. It was only after the First World War a really independent Polish state was created.
960-992 – Mieszko I (Duke of Poland)
1025-1025 – Bolesław I Chrobry (who was crowned in 1025, although he had been a duke since 992)
1025-1031 – Mieszko II
1076-1079 – Bolesław II Szczodry
1295-1296 – Przemysł II
1300-1305 – Wacław II
1305-1306 – Wacław III
1320-1333 – Władysław I Łokietek
1333-1370 – Kazimierz III Wielki
House of Anjou (Andegawenowie)
1370-1382 – Ludwik Węgierski
1384-1399 – Jadwiga Andegaweńska
1386-1434 – Władysław II Jagiełło
1434-1444 – Władysław III Warneńczyk
1447-1492 – Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk
1492-1501 – Jan Olbracht
1501-1506 – Aleksander Jagiellończyk
1506-1548 – Zygmunt I Stary
1530-1572 – Zygmunt II August
1574-1575 – Henryk Walezy
1575-1596 – Anna Jagiellonka
1576-1586 – Stefan Batory
1587-1632 – Zygmunt III Waza (House of Vasa (Wazowie))
1632-1648 – Władysław IV Waza (House of Vasa)
1648-1668 – Jan II Kazimierz Waza (House of Vasa)
1669-1673 – Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki
1674-1696 – Jan III Sobieski
1697-1706 – August II Mocny (House of Wettin (Wettynowie))
1706-1712 – Stanisław Leszczyński
1709-1733 – August II Mocny (House of Wettin)
1733-1736 – Stanisław Leszczyński
1734-1763 – August III Sas (House of Wettin)
1764-1795 – Stanisław August Poniatowski
During 1795-1918, after the partitions of Poland state doesn’t exist and title haven’t been used.
1916-1918 – Regency Council
In 1918 Regency Council gave control on the Poland to Józef Piłsudski. Since this moment Poland is a republic.
You have to check out this very interesting video:
Do następnego razu… (Till next time…)