The average annual temperature in Poland ranges from 5-7*C in the hilly Pomeranian and Masurian lake districts and in the uplands to 8-10*C in the belt of the sub-Carpathian basins, the Silesian Lowland and the Wielkopolska Lowland. Only in the upper parts of the Carpathians and Sudetes is it about 0*C (Kasprowy Wierch, -0.8*C; Mt Śnieżka, -0.4*C).
The hottest month is July with the average temperature standing at 16-19*C. The coldest area in July is the mountains, where the air temperature drops as the altitude increases (on average by 0.6*C for every 100 metres). In the summit areas of the Tatry and Sudety, the average air temperature in July is just about 9*C. July is also cooler in areas adjacent to the Baltic (about 16*C), which is caused by the cold sea waters. The hottest area is central Poland, with the temperatures exceeding 18*C.
Hot days, when the temperature exceeds 25*C, occur from May to September. Their number increases the further you go from the sea. On average, there are only five such days at the Rozewie Cape and over 40 in the Sandomierz Basin and Lublin Upland.
The coldest month in Poland is January. Cold continental air flowing in from the east in January makes the eastern part of Poland one of the coldest areas in the country.
Sub-zero temperatures are recorded between November and March. The average annual number of frosty days ranges from about 25 along the lower Odra River and at the seaside to 65 in the Suwałki Lake District; in the mountains, it reaches 132 days on Mt Śnieżka and 150 days on Kasprowy Wierch. The number of freeze days, typically in late spring and early autumn, ranges in the lowlands from 90 (at the seaside) to 130, while in the mountains it exceeds 200.
Varying air temperatures affect the length of the vegetation season, during which the average daily air temperature is at least 5*C. On average the vegetation season in Poland lasts about 200 days. It is the shortest in the mountains, in the eastern part of the Pomeranian Lake District and in the Masurian and Suwałki lake districts. It is the longest in the Silesian Lowland and along the lower Odra. The lowest temperatures ever recorded in Poland were -41*C in Siedlce (in 1940) and -40.6 *C in the Żywiec Basin (in 1929). The highest temperature, +40.2*C, was recorded in Pruszków near Opole in 1921.
The hottest part of Poland is the Silesian Lowland, strongly influenced by the Atlantic air. An important factor is also the region’s location close to higher-lying areas that stop clouds and moisture, which results in high insolation. The thermal winter period here is only about 60 days long and winters are relatively mild, while summers are sunny and hot, lasting over 100 days, which puts them among the longest in Poland. Average temperature in July exceeds 18.5*C. The highest temperatures are recorded near Wroclaw, on the Wroclaw Plain. This is the only area in Poland where the annual average temperature is over 8.5**C. Because of this mild climate, the Silesian Lowland has one of the longest vegetation seasons in the country, lasting 220 days.
The coldest spot is the north-eastern corner around Suwałki. With its morainal hills, postglacial lakes and low temperatures, this region bears much similarity to the distant Scandinavia. Harsh and long winters, lasting over four months, earned it the name of Poland’s cold pole. The influence of the continental climate manifests itself in very low temperatures in winter and pretty high ones in summer. The average temperatures in the Suwałki region have the biggest amplitudes in Poland, over 23*C, which is even more than in the mountains. The average air temperatures in January, the coldest month, are below -5*C, the lowest in Poland. In summer the average air temperature drops below 17.5*C. The annual average air temperature in the Suwałki Lake District is slightly more than 6*C. Predictably, summer here is one of the shortest in Poland, lasting about 60 days. The vegetation season in this harsh climate is about 190 days long, to which the breathtaking wild nature of the Suwałki region has become well adapted.
Now let’s gather few useful words:
frosty days – mroźne dni
sunny days – słoneczne dni
cloudy days – pochmurne dni
rainy days – deszczowe dni
moisture – wilgoć
vegetation season – sezon wegetacyjny
high temperature – wysoka temperatura
low temperature – niska temperatura
mild climate – łagodny klimat
harsh climate – ostry klimat
insolation – Insolacja, nasłonecznienie
Do następnego razu! (Till next time…)