Definite Nouns:(5) Relative Nouns الأسماء الموصولة Posted by Fisal on Apr 2, 2011 in Arabic Language, Grammar, Vocabulary
- Today we continue learning about another type of definite nouns. This new type is known in English as Relative Pronouns . However, in Arabic, they are nouns, not pronouns.
- A relative noun is a noun referring to a definite thing by a sentence that follows it. This sentence is called the relative dependant clause or ” جملة صلة الموصول ” (Sela Clause)
- The Sela sentence can be a Verbial sentence or a Nominative one.
- The Sela sentence must always have a pronoun that relates it to the Mawsool noun.
- This pronoun or reference must agree with the Mawsool (noun it refers to) in everything.
Types of Relative Nouns
1- الذي = (who / which) : Referring to the Masculine Singular (persons & things).
Examples: – محمد هو الذي قرأ الكتاب
= Mohamed is the person who read the book .
– الكتاب الذي على الأريكة كتابي
= The book which is on the table is mine.
2- التي = (who / which) : Referring to the feminine singular (persons & things).
Examples: – هذه هي المدرسة التي أذهب إليها
= This is the school which I go to .
– منى هي الفتاة التي ترتدي الزى الأزرق
= Mona is the girl wearing the blue uniform.
3- اللذان = (who / which) : Referring to the Masculine Dual (persons & things).
Example: -علي و أحمد هما اللذان كتبا الدرس
= Ali and Ahmed are the boys who wrote the lesson.
– الكتابان اللذان اشتريتهما رائعان
= The two books (which) I bought are great.
4- اللتان = (who / which) : Referring to the Feminine Dual (persons & things)
Examples: – البنتان اللتان وصلتا أولاً هما منى و سها
= The two girls who arrived first are Mona and Soha.
– المقالتان اللتان قرأتهما لكاتبةٍ عربية
= The two articles which I read, are by an Arab writer.
5- الذِين = (who) : Referring to The Masculine Plural (Persons only).
Examples: – هؤلاء هم الأولاد الذين وصلوا متأخرين
= These are the boys who arrived late.
6- اللاتي / اللائي = (who) : referring to the Feminine Plural (Persons only)
Examples: – هؤلاء هن البنات اللاتي / اللائي وصلن متأخرات
= These are the girls who arrived late.
7- مَنْ = (who) : Referring to only Persons (F./M.) in all Numbers (Sing./Dual/ Pl.)
Examples: – أحب مَنْ يقول الصدق
= I like this / those who tell(s) the truth.
– مَنْ يحب وطنه فهو مواطن صالح
= He who loves his country is a good citizen.
8- ما = (What/which) : Referring to only nonhuman things (F./M.) in all Numbers (Sing./Dual/Pl.)
Examples: – أحب كل ما تكتبه من قصص
= I like all what you write.
– نشرت الصحيفة كل ما أرسلت لها
= The paper published all what I sent of stories.
Next time, we will discuss the last two types of Definite Nouns.
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Peace سلام /Salam/
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mogamat osman dawood:
i would like you to go into detail about the relative pronoun, as i dont understand when the returner عائد is used. shukran.