An Introduction to Verbs مقدمة فى الأفعال Posted by Fisal on Apr 15, 2011 in Arabic Language, Grammar, Vocabulary
- In previous posts, we have discussed Nouns and learnt their basic terminology.
- Today and in later posts, we are going to do the same with Verbs.
- Most words (nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs) are derived from verbs.
- The focus today will be on the basic terminology and categories of root verbs.
It is a part of speech that refers to something happening and Time is a part of it.
There are several forms of Root Verbs that can be studied in light of the following:
(1) Verb Type نوع الفعل : A verb falls into two main categories;
a. Declinable متصرف : Verbs that can be used in many forms.
b. Indeclinable جامد : Verbs that have only ONE form.
(2) Verb Tense الزمن : The form of the verbs depends on which tense it is.
– A verb must agree with its subject in both number and gender.
– There are Three main tenses in Arabic:
a. Past Tense الماضي : A verb which refers to a finished action in the past.
b. Present Tense المضارع : A verb which refers to an unfinished action either at present or in the future.
(Note: Future is expressed by adding the letter س or the word سوف to the present verb.)
c. Imperative الأمر : A verb that refers to a request or a command.
(3) Verb Health صحة الفعل : Root verbs can be:
a. Healthy صحيح : Verbs that don’t have any sick letters in their root.
– Healthy Verbs have three types :
i. Mahmooz مهموز : Verbs that have a Hamza (أ ) in their stem.
ii. Doubled مضعّف : Verbs that have a doubled or repeated letter in their stem.
iii. Sound سالم : Verbs that don’t have a Hamza or a doubled letter in their stem.
b. Unhealthy (Sick) معتل : Verbs that have one or two sick letters in their stem.
– The sick letters are Waw (و ) , Alif (ا ) , Yaa (ى )
– Unhealthy verbs have three types;
1. Mithaal مثال : Here the first letter of the verb is sick; e.g. وعد = promised
2. Agwaf أجوف : Here the second letter is a sick one; e.g. قال = said
3. Naaqis ناقص : Here the last letter of the root is sick; e.g. بنىَ = built
(4) Verb effect أثر الفعل : Verbs fall into two categories according to their effect.
a. Transitive متعدى : It is the verb that takes and object and affects its object(s).
b. Intransitive لازم : It is the Verb that do not take an object and affects only its subject.
(5) Verb Voice : Verbs can be:
a. Active مبنى للمعلوم : A verb with a clear or mentioned subject.
b. Passive مبنى للمجهول : A verb with a vague or unmentioned subject.
Next time, we will continue looking at Verbs in more and more detail.
Check us back soon
Peace ســلام / Salam/
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Thanks, I am waiting for the next episodes!
One question, is there an arabic word to name the triliteral and quadriliteral verbs?
@Juan Sure Juan, …. Triliteral means ثلاثى /Tholaathy/ an adjective refering to number three and Quadriliteral means رباعى /Robaaei/ an adjective referring to number four. Both these forms fall into the category of Mojarrad Verbs; those roots with minimum number of letters.
@Juan Those will be discussed fully when we discuss conjugation and measures for derivation of new words. currently, I am much concerned with basic terminology of verbs.
Thank you Fisal.