Mabni Words الكلمات المبنية Posted by Fisal on Aug 13, 2011 in Arabic Language, Grammar, Pronunciation, Vocabulary
In my previous post, we were introduced to the two grammatical terms of Mo’rab and Mabni. We learnt that a Mo’rab word is that which changes the harakah at its end and the Mabni word is that which is always the same with no change of harakah at its end.
- Most nouns and present verbs fall into the Mo’rab category.
- Today, we are going to learn the different words in the Mabni category.
A) Horoof حُروف or Particles
All Horoof or particles including all prepositions are Mabni words. They are pronounced the same whatever the position they have in the sentence.
EX. – from مِن / to إلى / on على / about عن / in في / or أو / and و / but لكن … etc.
B) Mabni Nouns الأسماء المبنية
- Some certain nouns always fall into the Mabni category. These nouns are as follow:
1- Pronouns الضمائر : All pronouns are Mabni words; they are pronounced the same.
EX. – I أنا / you أنتَ / he هو / she هي / we نحنُ … etc.
2- Demonstrative Nouns أسماء الإشارة :
EX. – this هذا / هذه / that ذلك / تلك / these هؤلاء … etc.
3- Relative Nouns الأسماء الموصولة :
EX. – who / which / الذي / التي / اللذان / اللتان / who الذين / اللائي … etc.
4- Conditional Nouns أسماء الشرط :
EX. – he who مَن / what ما / if إذا / إنْ / when متى / where أينَ … etc.
5- Interrogative Nouns أسماء الاستفهام :
EX. – who مَن / what ما / ماذا / when متى / how كيف / how many/much كم … etc.
6- Compound Numbers الأعداد المركبة :
Numbers from eleven to nineteen except for twelve are all Mabni words.
Ex. – eleven أحدَ عشرَ / thirteen ثلاثة عشرَ / …… nineteen تسعةَ عشرَ
7- Some Adverbs بعض الظروف :
Ex. – where حيثُ / yesterday أمس / now الآنَ … etc.
8- Compound Adverbs الظروف المُركبة :
Ex. – day and night ليلَ نهارَ / morning and evening صباحَ مساءَ / in-between بينَ بينَ …etc.
C) Mabni Verbs الأفعال المبنية :
* All Past verbs and all Imperative verbs fall into the category of Mabni words.
Ex. – Ali went to school. ذهبَ علىٌ إلى المدرسة
There is always a Fathah at the end of all past verbs that is why – in Arabic – we say that the past verb is Mabni on the Fath (فعل ماضي مبنى على الفتح ). You can not add a Dammah or Kasrah or Sukoon above the last letter of any past verb.
Ex. – Go to school, Ali. اذهبْ إلى المدرسة يا علىُ
Imperatives are like past verbs but the correct harakah that goes with them at the end of the verb is the Sukoon that is why we say that the imperative verb is Mabni on the Sukoon.
* Present tense verbs are Mabni only in two cases:
1- If the present verb is attached to the Noon of Affirmation but not with the Dual Alif or the Plural Waw.
Ex. – Don’t write the lesson. لا تكـتــُـبَـنَّ الدرسَ (Fathah on the last letter of the verb)
– I will keep my promise. لأحافظـَـنَّ على العهدِ (Fathah on the last letter of the verb)
2- If the present verb is attached to the Plural Feminine Noon.
Ex. – The girls are writing the lesson. البناتُ يكتـُبـْنَ الدرسَ
(Sukoon on the last letter of the verb).
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Peace سلام /Salam/
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That is a very interesting view or classification of the arabic words. I admit I never approach them in such a way.
I will need some time to get used to this concept, expecially for verbs.
Thanks for the great help that you are providing us by these small jewels of the arabic language.
excellent post, thank you for taking the time to explain these concepts
Shukran Juan and Will. I am very happy you find this helpful. Actually learning and understanding the Arabic language grammar helps a great deal in tasting and feeling the beauty of the language.
مرحبا يا فيصل
if a mabni word ends on a consonant then its pronunciation depends on whether the next word starts with a همزة وصل (hamzat wasl) ٱ or not. For example take the harf مِن (from):
مِنْ مدينة (from a city) but مِنَ ٱلمدينة (from the city).
@Scheich Josef Ahlan Sheikh Josef,
Thanks for your comment and example. What you said is right on the sentence level. My post was dealing with separate words in general. Exceptions and the rules of Wasl hamza will be dealt with later when I discus sentences and hamza rules in more detail.
Shukran and Ramadan Kareem
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@Joslyn Retamar Thanks Joslyn for your nice words. We are honored.
What does it mean Mabni? Mabni my grandpa name,but i dont know what mean is Mabni.please answer my questione. thanks…
The weak verb بنى [bana:] usually means “to build” or “to construct”. In grammar it means “to give a word an indeclinable ending” in a certain vowel or a vowelless consonant.
The passive participle of this verb is مبني [mabni:j] and means therefore “build” or “constructed”. In grammar it means “indeclinable” or “with an indeclinable ending”.
Thanx for this wonderful breakdown of mabni
@Lee Lee You are very welcome, Lee 🙂
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In mabni all ism e ishara n ism e mausol are mabni except tasniya WHY???
@Amtul ayiza Ahlan, Amtul. They are all Mabni words whether Dual (Tathniyah) or not but the marker or determiner is different. It is not Fat’h. They are mabni on the Alif of the dual.
As salaamu alaikum. I am studying ajaramiyya. So I am finding your grammar rules very helpful. Alhamdullilah. May Allah continue to bless you with the good works.
Very good to see another person doing what too do: teach EFL and Arabic.
Would love to visit Egypt one day, and hopefully meet you. If you come to Australia, please let me know.