The “to be” verbs in Dari Posted by on Sep 1, 2011 in language

  The “to be “verbs are verbs that show state of being, (i.e.  Am, are, and is). In Dari the “to be” verbs are derived from the imaginary infinitive هستن   Hastan.  All different forms of the  “to be” verb have the same stem and only the ending changes, for example هستم  Hastam (I am) and  هستند Hastand (they are) have the same stem and  only the ending of the verb changes.

In Dari every verb has two stems, the past stem and the present stem.  The present stem of the “to be” verb is هست hast, and by adding the verb ending to the present stem we can form the “to be” verbs for all subjects.  Remember that the verb endings are the same for all verbs in the present tense.

In Dari the ending of a verb shows who the verb is used for or who the doer of the action is, there for we can use the “to be” verbs without using the subject, for example, هستیم hastem means “we are” in this verb the subject “we” is implied or embedded.  The fowling are the “to be” verbs, the verb endings are highlighted.


Transliteration                   Dari            meaning


Hastam                                هستم                (I) am


Hastem                                هستیم              (we) are


Hastand                               هستند              (they) are


Hasteed                               هستید               (you plural) are


Hasti                                      هستی               (you singular) are


Ast                                         است                 (he/she/it) is


Please watch the video for proper pronunciation, further explanation, and example sentences.

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About the Author: Sayed Naqibullah

Sayed Naqibullah speaks Pashto and Dari as his native languages. Since 2004 he has been teaching Dari and Pashto and working as cultrual advisor to NGO workers, foreigners who live, work, or are visiting Afghanistan. Sayed has worked as a linguist for several companies that produce language course-ware. He has worked as a guide, interpreter and translator of a number of NGOs working in Afghanistan. Sayed is also a blog writer on Afghan culture and languages. He is the author of a Dari language textbook called “Dari as a Second Language”.


  1. Michele:

    Good videos, please make more, I have Sayed Naqibullah’s book, ‘Dari as a Second Language’ and it is quite helpful for me. I teach Afghan women English and it helps to know some basic Dari words and phrases.