Hindi Language Blog

Hindi Pronouns Posted by on Sep 21, 2010 in Hindi Language

Today, we will study pronouns in Hindi.  As Hindi is Indo-European language, to which English also belongs,  the pronouns in Hindi closely resembles to their equivalent in English.  Now, let us study them in little detail.

परिभाषा  (Paribhasha – Definition) :  संज्ञा के स्थान पर प्रयुक्त होने वाले शब्दों को सर्वनाम कहते हैं।  ( Those words used in place of nouns are called pronouns)

उदाहरण  (Udaaharn – Example)
1. मैं स्कूल गया था। (I have gone to the school)
2. यह मेरे भाई का पैन है।  (This is my brother’s pen)
3. आखिर दुनिया को इनकी क्या जरूरत है? ( After all, why world need them? )

Underlined words are pronouns.

Repeated use of nouns is very strange and unnecessary. Let us see an example :-

First sentence without pronouns:-

मनीश ने मुकेष से कहा, कि मनीश मुकेष के घर नहीं गया था। (Manish told Mukesh, that Manish did not go to Mukesh’s house.)

Second sentence with pronouns:-

मनीश ने मुकेष से कहा, कि मैं तुम्हारे घर नहीं गया था। ( Manish told Mukesh, that he did not go to his house.)

There are six types of pronoun in Hindi :

1. पुस्र्षवाचक सर्वनाम (Purushvaachak Sarvanaam – Personal pronoun):  Personal pronouns are pronouns used as substitutes for proper or common nouns.
(क) तुम क्यों नहीं आए थें? (Why did not you come?)
(ख) वह भी आया था ।  (He came too.)
(ग) मैं बाजार गई थी।  ( I went to the market.)

Underlined words are पुरूशवाचक सर्वनाम (Personal Pronoun). This can be further divided into three group according to the first, second or the third person.
(क) उत्तम पुस्र्ष (First Person) :-  Which speaker use for himself  like ‘मैं’,  ‘हम’ ।
(ख) मध्यम पुस्र्ष (Second Person) :- Which speaker use for addressing second person ( used for listener or reader) like ‘तू’, ‘तुम’, ‘आप’।
(ग) अन्य पुस्र्ष (Third  Person) :-  On which speaker talks or writes about like  ‘वह’,  ‘वे’।

2. निष्चयवाचक सर्वनाम (Nishchyavaachak Sarvanaam – Demonstrative Pronoun): Demonstrative pronouns are pronouns that point to specific things, object or give some information about specific thing or object.
Example :
(क) यह तुम्हारी पुस्तक है। ।  ( This is your book.)
(ख) तुम्हारी पुस्तक वह है।  ( Your book is that one)

3. अनिष्चयवाचक सर्वनाम  (Anishchyavaachak Sarvanaam – Indefinite Pronoun) : Indefinite pronoun is a pronoun that refers to one or more unspecified beings or object.

(क) यहॉ कोई रहता है।  (Someone lives here.)
(ख) दूध में कुछ पडा है। (There is something in the milk.)

4. सम्बन्ध वाचक सर्वनाम ( Sambandhvaachak Sarvanaam – Relative Pronoun ): Relative pronoun is a pronoun that refers to the relationship between the objects or beings.
Examples :
(ग) जो हिन्दी नहीं पड़ सकता वह संस्कृत कैसे पड़ेगा ? (One who can not read Hindi, how can he read Sanskrit? )

5. प्रष्नवाचक सर्वनाम (Prashanvaachak Sarvanaam – Interrogative Pronoun): Interrogative pronoun is a pronoun that is used to ask an question.

Examples :
(क) वहाँ कौन सो रहा है ?  (Who is sleeping there?)
(ख) तुम कल किसके घर गये थे ? (To whose house did you go yesterday?)
(ग) तुम्हारी जेब में क्या है ? (What is in your pocket? )

6. निजवाचक सर्वनाम (Nijavaachak Sarvanaam – Reflexive Pronoun) :  Reflexive pronoun is a special kind of pronoun that is usually used when the object of a sentence is the same as the subject.
उत्तम पुस्र्ष (First Person) :-  मैं अपने ‘आप’ चला जाऊॅगा।  (I will go by myself.)
मध्यम पुस्र्ष (Second Person) :-  तुम अपने ‘आप’ चले जाओं। ( You will go by yourself.)
अन्य पुस्र्ष (Third Person)-  वह अपने ‘आप’ चला जाएगा। (He will go by himself.)

Difficulty to follow this lesson? Let me know.

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About the Author: Nitin Kumar

Nitin Kumar is a native Hindi speaker from New Delhi, India. His education qualification include Masters in Robotics and Bachelors in Mechanical Engineering. Currently, he is working in the Research and Development in Robotics in Germany. He is avid language learner with varied level of proficiency in English, German, Spanish, and Japanese. He wish to learn French one day. His passion for languages motivated him to share his mother tongue, Hindi, and culture and traditions associated with its speakers. He has been working with Transparent Language since 2010 and has written over 430 blogs on various topics on Hindi language and India, its culture and traditions. He is also the Administrator for Hindi Facebook page which has a community of over 330,000 members.


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    Hello – Would you be able to include the pronunciations with the hindi words? It’s great to be able to read this, but to know how to speak it would be incredible! Best wishes and thank you! – Rose

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