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There are about 10 million speakers of Portuguese in Portugual itself, and the large majority of speakers in Brazil (about 150 million), but where else in the world can one hear this wonderful language spoken?
The short answer: former Portuguese colonies. The Lusophonic (Portuguese-speaking) world, also known as the Lusosphere really wraps around the globe, with representative countries in Europe, South America, Asia, the Indian Subcontinent, and a smattering of islands in the Atlantic.
Here’s a Big Map of the Lusophonic world.
Here’s a list of countries/geographic regions where Portuguese is spoken:
Azores [os Açores]
Cape Verde [Cabo Verde]
São Tomé and Principe
I would be remiss not to make mention of the significant immigrant populations in any attempt to enumerate lusophonic regions. Japan has large pockets of Brazilian immigrants, many of whom are of purely Japanese descent but speak no Japanese, as they were raised in Brazil.
The Northeast region of the United States certainly makes the cut; there is a critical mass of Brazilian immigrants, legal and illegal, in and around Boston in particular. Fall River, MA has a long history of Portuguese-descended fishermen making their residence their, and more recently waves of immigrants from Brazil, Cape Verde and other lusophonic nations have arrived and created quite a community.
Framingham, Massachusetts, is perhaps the most well-known and affluent concentration of Brazilians in the Greater Boston area and will certainly warrant a longer dedicated post!