Arabic Language Blog

Communication الاتصال / التواصل Posted by on May 20, 2011 in Arabic Language, Culture, Vocabulary

     Today, we are going to discuss the communication process and the basic elements of this process. We will also shed some light on the forms of communication and the basic characteristics of each form.


     To Rogers, ” communication is the process of transmitting ideas, information and attitudes from the source to the receiver for the purpose of influencing with intent.”

      Kar also defines communication as “all those planned or unplanned processes through which one person influences behaviour of others.”

So, the concept of communication simply relies on four components:

      1) The sender / speaker / source / encoder  

      2) The message

      3) The receiver / decoder

      4) The feedback or the appropriate response to the message.

If the feedback is positive, then the sender is sure that the intended effect of the message was achieved. If the feedback is negative, then the sender realizes that the intended effect of the message was not achieved and misunderstanding is likely to arise.

Forms of Communication

 There are various classifications of communication forms. Basically, we can distinguish between two main forms of communication:

 1- Verbal Communication التواصل اللفظي : which includes ;

    a) Oral Communication ; such as talking to oneself dialogue discussion between two people, telephone calls.

    b) Visual Communication ; such as maps, graphic, traffic signals, advertisements ….etc.

    c) Written Communication ; such as memos, letters, reports, papers.

    d) Electronic ; which is communication facilitated by an interface with a computer, modem, telephone fax, E-mail …..etc.

2- Non-verbal Communication التواصل الغير لفظى  :

       Non-verbal communication is a fundamental human interaction where speech alone is unable to deal with it. It is communication that can occur without words at all.

* The sender has at least four main sets of physical non-verbal cues; face, eyes, body and voice.

    a) The face includes frowning, smiling and grimacing.

    b) The eyes can signal by direction of gaze.

    c) The body offers postures, position of arms and legs and distancing.

    d) Voice includes tone and speech rhythm.

* The receiver has five primary senses; vision, hearing, touch, taste, and smell. There are five functional categories of non-verbal communication:

     a) Emblems movements; they are substituted for words.

     b) Illustrators movements; that accompany speech and accent.

     c) Regulators movements; that maintain or signal a change in speaking and listening roles.

     d) Adaptors movements related to individual need or emotional state.

     e) Effect movements particularly the facial expressions showing emotions.

Kinds of Non-Verbal Language

1) Language of Facial Expression: In general, a smile, a scowl or a frown has a universal meaning. A frown may be dislike or disapproval or puzzlement. A smile maybe love, happiness, amusement or kindness.

2) Language of Eye Contact: There are a number of messages communicated by glances, such as : involvement, hostility, command and others.

3) Language of Posture: The more the person leans towards the individual he is talking to, the more positively he feels about the person and vice versa.

4) Language of Voice: Voice variations may convey anger, fear, grief ….etc.

5) Language of Apparel: The way we dress communicates something about us. All of us wear uniforms such as work clothes, play clothes, formal dress … etc. Our dress reflects our respect for those whom we visit or go out with.

6) Language of Colour: Warm colours – such as yellow, orange and red- stimulate creativity and make people feel outgoing and responsive to others. Cool colours encourage meditation and also may discourage conversation.

7) Language of Odor: odors have a profound ability to recall memories out of one’s past. Food smells remind a person of his mother’s cooking, flowers of spring time …etc.

8) Language of Time: People have a unique culture clock. In Egypt for example, you can be half an hour late for a party or a business appointment.

9) Language of Space: Every person seems to develop a distance at which he prefers to interact with others. Arabs and Latin Americans like to talk to each other closely while North Americans maintain a considerable distance.


Source : Pathways into Higher Education Project, Communication Skills, Dr Inas Abo-Youssef.

 Check us back soon

Peace سلام   / Salam/

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About the Author: Fisal

Well, I was born near the city of Rasheed or Rosetta, Egypt. Yes, the city where the Rosetta Stone was discovered. It is a small city on the north of Egypt where the Nile meets the Mediterranean. I am a Teacher of EFL.


  1. jamil shqairat:

    اشكرك على هذا الموجز المختصر والمفيد عن الاتصال والتواصل .فهي مختصره ومفيده وسل فهمها وتفهيمها..جزاك الله خيرا وبارك الله فيك>>>

  2. Fisal:

    You are very welcome, Jamil.