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The Hebrew language consists of patterns: verbs (called בנינים) and nouns (called משקלים).
Those fixed patterns – בניינים and משקלים – form a frame to the numerous Hebrew roots. The prefixes and/or suffixes of the patterns are permanent, and the root just integrated into it. Some of the patterns also attribute meaning to the word.
A pattern like this we’ve already learned is the pattern for languages: ___ יׅת . Almost all of the languages’ names in Hebrew follow this pattern. For example: Hebrew = עִבְרִית, English = אַנְגְּלִית, Hungarian = הוּנְגָּרִית, Portuguese = פּוֹרְטוּגֶזִית, Chinese = סִינִית, and so on.
Another fixed pattern in Hebrew is קַטֶּלֶת. Many nouns are conjugated according to this pattern. Fall of autumn leaves (שַׁלֶּכֶת), pipeline (צַנֶּרֶת), hump of a camel (דַּבֶּשֶׁת), just to name a few. But most of the words following this pattern are disease names and different ailments, thus it’s received the nickname “the diseases’ pattern” (מׅשְׁקַל הַמַּחֲלוֺת), although the word disease itself – מַחֲלָה (ma-ha-la) – belongs to another pattern.
For example (in Aleph-Bet order):
Obesity = אַבֶּסֶת (a-be-set)
Rubella = אַדֶּמֶת (a-de-met)
Edema = בַּצֶּקֶת (ba-tze-ket)
Impetigo = גַּלֶּדֶת (ga-le-det)
Scabies = גָּרֶדֶת (ga-re-det)
Inflammation = דַּלֶּקֶת (da-le-ket)
Celiac disease = דַּגֶּנֶת (da-ge-net)
Lupus = זָאֶבֶת (za-e-vet)
Mumps = חַזֶּרֶת (ha-ze-ret)
Acne = חַטֶּטֶת (ha-te-tet)
Jet lag = יַעֶפֶת (ya-e-fet)
Rabies = כַּלֶּבֶת (ka-le-vet)
Runny nose = נַזֶּלֶת (na-ze-let)
Diabetes = סֻכֶּרֶת (su-ke-ret)
Syphilis = עַגֶּבֶת (a-ge-vet)
Scoliosis = עַקֶּמֶת (a-ke-met)
Thrombosis = פַּקֶּקֶת (pa-ke-ket)
Hepatitis = צַהֶבֶת (tza-e-vet)
Scar = צַלֶּקֶת (tza-le-ket)
Tetanus = צַפֶּדֶת (tza-pe-det)
Allergy = רַגֶּשֶׁת (ra-ge-shet)
אֲנׅי אָלֶרְגׅי לְבּוֺטְנׅים.
I’m allergic to peanuts.
In 2006 a new word was approved instead of אָלֶרְגְּיָה – רַגֶּשֶׁת. But Israelis
haven’t quite got used to the new word, and most of them still use the old word
and its conjugations.
Tuberculosis = שַׁחֶפֶת (sha-he-fet)
Pertussis = שַׁעֶלֶת (sha-e-let)
Diseases’ roots that their third letter is guttural – the letters ח, ע, ר – change the diseases’ pattern punctuation. The last two vowels of the word alter from “e” sound to “a” sound. For example:
Schizophrenia = שַׁסַּעַת (sha-sa-at)
Flu = שַׁפַּעַת (sha-pa-at)
Leprosy = צָרַעַת (tza-ra-at)
Fever = קַדַּחַת (ka-da-hat)
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