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Joining in Hindi Posted by on Jul 26, 2011 in Hindi Language

How to join consonants, vowels etc to make a new word in Hindi might be a question for any Hindi learner.In many languages, it is quite common to draw inspiration from two words to make a new word which not only sounds interesting, appropriate, save space but also shows the creative side of any language and their speakers. In Hindi language, we also combine and create new words quite often and believe me, they are very creative and interesting to pursue.

Now you must be wondering, which rules come into play to make these combinations and creations, a possibility.

Don’t worry, these rules are quite straight-forward. Let me show you, how to start creating some interesting words in Hindi.

Joining (संधि) or combination in Hindi are of 3 major types.

1)  स्वर संधि (Svar Sandhi – Vowels Joining)
When a word comes out of an combination of two vowels.

Examples: Note carefully, how the two Hindi vowels are combining to produce a newly formed word.
a.   अ + अ = आ
अन्न (Ann – Wheat/Food Grain) + अभाव (Abhav – Scarcity) = अन्नाभाव (Annabhav – Scarcity of Wheat/Food Grain)
b.   इ + इ = ई
योगी (Yogi – Devotee) + ईश्वर (Iswar – God) = योगीश्वर (lit: One who is devoted to God. Usually a name)
c.   उ + उ = ऊ
गुरु (Guru – Master/Teacher) + उपदेश (Updesh – Lesson) = गुरूपदेश (Lesson of the teacher)
4.   अ + इ = ए
देव (Dev – God) + इंद्र (Indra – King of Hindu Demi-Gods) = देवेन्द्र (Devendra – God Indra. Usually a name)
5.   अ + उ = ओ
चंद्र (Chandra – Moon) + उदय (Uday – Rise) = चंद्रोदय (Chandroday – Moon’s rise)

2) व्यंजन (Vyanjan Sandhi – Consonants Joining)
When a word is formed by a combination of two consonant or a consonant and a vowel.

Examples: Note carefully, how the two Hindi consonants or vowels are combining to produce a newly formed word.

a. भगवत (Bhagvat- God) + गीता (Gita – Song) = भगवद्गीता (Bhagvadgita – The Song of  God)
b. जगद (Jagad – World) + नाथ (Nath – God) = जगन्नाथ (lit:  Lord of the World. Usually a name)
c. प्र (Pry) + मान (Man – Measure) = प्रमाण (Pramad – Proof)
d. वि (Vi – Opposite) + सम (Sam – Same) = विषम (Visham – Strange)

3)   विसर्ग (Visarg Sandi – inflectional Suffix Joining)
When a word comes from the combinations of inflectional suffix and consonant or vowel.

Examples: Note carefully, how the two Hindi suffixes or consonants or vowels are combining to produce a newly formed word.

a. मन: (Man – Mind)  + रथ (Rath – Vehicle) = मनोरथ (Manorath – Vehicle of Mind)
b. नि: (Ni – Without)+ धन (Dhan – Money) = निधन  (Nidhan – Poor)
c. नि: (Ni – Without) + रोग (Rog – Disease)  = निरोग ( Nirog – Healthly)
d. नम: (Nam – Greeting) + ते (Te – to you) = नमस्ते (Greeting  to you)

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About the Author:Nitin Kumar

Nitin Kumar is a native Hindi speaker from New Delhi, India. His education qualification include Masters in Robotics and Bachelors in Mechanical Engineering. Currently, he is working in the Research and Development in Robotics in Germany. He is avid language learner with varied level of proficiency in English, German, Spanish, and Japanese. He wish to learn French one day. His passion for languages motivated him to share his mother tongue, Hindi, and culture and traditions associated with its speakers. He has been working with Transparent Language since 2010 and has written over 430 blogs on various topics on Hindi language and India, its culture and traditions. He is also the Administrator for Hindi Facebook page which has a community of over 330,000 members.

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