Independent Verbs Prefix Ber- Posted by asimonoff on Feb 28, 2017 in Uncategorized
Prefix “ber–” is often called a verbal prefix. This is because most of the words with this prefix are verbs, even though they may be derived from nouns, verbs, adjectives or numbers. “ber–” verbs are intransitive.
The meaning of the verbs will be based on the group they belong to.
|Prefix “Ber- + …”|
BER- + VERB
To do what the base word indicates
Some ber– verbs have verbal bases. It is difficult to assign a meaning to ber- with such bases other than that its presence is necessary to produce a well-formed verb, and to do what the base words indicate.
Jalan – berjalan – to walk
Gerak – bergerak – to move
Kumpul – berkumpul – to assemble
Kunjung – berkunjung – to pay a visit
Kerja* – bekerja – to work
Kelahi – berkelahi – to fight
Main – bermain – to play
Ajar* – belajar – to study
Lari*** – berlari – to run
Henti – berhenti – to stop
Tanya – bertanya – to ask
Bicara – berbicara – to speak/talk
Cakap – bercakap – to converse
Pikir – berpikir – to think
Temu – bertemu – to meet
Putar – berputar – to turn, spin, rotate
Renang** – berenang – to swim
Ubah – berubah – to change
Runding** – berunding – to negotiate
Nyanyi – bernyanyi – to sing
Dagang – berdagang – to do business
Tiup – bertiup – to blow
* and ** This slightly different form is due to sound assimilation.
*”r” in prefix “ber-” is dropped due to the sound assimilation. In belajar it is replaced by “l”.
***As a reflexive verb, “berlari” cannot be used to say “I run a company”, or “I’ll run you out of town”. It can only mean “to run (oneself)”. This also applies to “berjalan” that can only mean “to walk (oneself)”. It cannot be used to say “I walk the dog”.
BER- + NOUN
To have what the base word indicates
The largest group of ber- verbs with the noun bases has a general meaning of ‘to have or to own’ what the base word indicates. Some of these verbs do not translate well as “have + base “ such as berdebu ‘dusty’ (lit. ‘have dust’) or berguna ‘useful’ (‘have use’); in such cases the appropriate gloss is provided.
Guna – berguna – useful
Isi – berisi – contain
Pendapat – berpendapat – to have an opinion
Umur – berumur – be aged
Anak – beranak – to have children
Bau – berbau – to have smell
Rambut – berambut – to have hair
To wear or to use
This group includes words pertaining to things we wear (items of clothing) or use (including some vehicles, such as cars and bikes).
Baju – berbaju – to wear attire
Kacamata – berkacamata – to wear glasses
Sepatu – bersepatu – to wear shoes
Kuda – berkuda – to ride a horse
Perahu – berperahu – go by boat
Mobil – bermobil – go by car
Another group of ber- verbs with noun bases mean ‘produce (base)’. Many of these verbs refer to production of the sound indicated by the base.
Keringat – berkeringat – sweat
Telur – bertelur – lay an egg
Anak – beranak – give birth
Buah – berbuah – bear fruits
Kata – berkata – say
Kokok – berkokok – crow
Bunyi – berbunyi – make sound
Cerita – bercerita – to tell story
In a few cases, the noun base attached to the prefix ber- sometimes is a derived word that has affixes in it. For example:
Derived base word
Ber + base word
|pakai||to wear||pakaian||clothes, outfit||berpakaian||to wear/put on outfit|
|duduk||to sit||penduduk||residents, population, inhabitant||berpenduduk||have a population of, inhabited|
|berkedudukan||to have/hold position, be located|
|wajib||to be required, must,||kewajiban||obligation||berkewajiban||have obligation, be obliged/obligated|
The word beruang may mean three different things, depending on the base words.
Ber + word
| ber + uang
be(r) + ruang*
| to have money, be rich
to have room (for house, building)
*”r” in prefix ber is dropped due to the sound assimilation.
It is important to know that the first two beruang are grammatically correct but not often or rarely used in daily conversation. So, intead of saying “Dia beruang banyak” (He has a lot of money), people normally say “Dia punya banyak uang” or “Dia kaya (rich)”. Similarly, people will say “Gedung itu ruangnya kecil” or “Gedung itu punya ruang kecil” rather than “Gedung itu beruang kecil”.
The extended function of ber-
The application of ber- to a noun gives an extended meaning, beyond owning, using, wearing or producing. The function of ber is to transform a noun into an intransitive verb. In other words ber is an intransitive verb-maker.
demonstrasi (n.) demonstration
berdemonstrasi to engage in a demonstration (lit.: to have a demonstration)
Kemarin banyak orang berdemonstrasi di lapangan Trafalgar.
Yesterday lots of people demonstrated in Trafalgar square.
usaha (n.) effort
berusaha (v.i.) to try/to attempt (lit. : to have an effort)
Pemerintah sudah berusaha keras, tapi harga-harga tetap naik.
The government has made serious efforts, but prices continue to rise.
hasil (n.) result
berhasil to succed in (lit.: to have a result)
Sebegitu jauh pemerintah belum berhasil.
So far the government hasn’t been successful.
janji (n.) a promise
berjanji (v.i.) to promise
Perdana Menteri berjanji bahwa tahun ini harga-harga akan turun.
The Prime Minister promised that this year prices will go down.
BER- + ADJECTIVE
Sedih – bersedih – be sad
Sama – bersama – together
Gembira – bergembira – be glad
Bahagia – berbahagia – be happy
Bahaya – berbahaya – be dangerous
Keras – berkeras – insist, persist
Sabar – bersabar – be patient
Damai – berdamai – make peace, be in peace
When attached to a cardinal numbers this derive numbers refer to a group:
Berdua – both, two together
Bertiga – all three, three together
Berenam – all six, all six together
However, note the following:
Bersatu – to unite, to be one
These forms occur with pronoun but not with nouns.
Kami berdua – both of us
Mereka berempat menghadap atasan mereka.
The four of them appeared before their boss.
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