The “to be” Verbs in Pashto Posted by Sayed Naqibullah on Sep 15, 2011 in language, Uncategorized
The “to be “verbs are verbs that show state of being, (i.e. Am, are, and is). The infinitive of the “to be” verb in Pashto is اوسېدل Osedal. In Pashto, all of the “ to be” verbs in present tense do not share a common stem, for example ده da (she is) and یم yam (I am) does not have any letters in common. The “to be” verbs in Pashto have gender and has to agree with the subject of the sentence.
In Pashto, the subject or the doer of the action is embedded in the verb. The ending of a verb shows who the subject is, there for we don’t need to use the subject. A subject in the sentence can be used to emphasize. For instance if we want to say “I am good” we simply put the “to be” verb یم yam with the adjective: ښه یم. Kha yam. But if we want to emphasize on the subject we can put the word زه za (I), زه ښه یم za Kha yam. The verbs in Pashto always come at the end of the sentence.
Even though the verbs in Pashto have gender and need to agree with the subject of the sentence but as you see in the following verbs in present tense, most of the “to be” verbs can be used for both genders without undergoing any changes. The only “to be” verbs that have different forms for masculine and feminine in present tense is the third person singular that are highlighted here (he/she/it ),the rest of the “to be” verbs are the same for both genders.
Transliteration Pashto meaning
Yam یم (I) am
Yay یې (you singular) are
Yaast یاست (you plural) are
Yu یو (we) are
Dae دی (He/it) is
Da ده (she/it) is
Dee دي (they) are