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Basic Polish geography Posted by on Mar 15, 2013 in Countries, Nature

The Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska) is one of the largest countries in Central Europe, bordering Russia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Germany. Its northern frontier on the Baltic Sea gives it easy access to Scandinavian and North Sea ports. Poland`s shape is roughly square, measuring 400-440 miles across.

Image by gingerpig2000 on flickr.com

Image by gingerpig2000 on flickr.com

The capital, Warsaw, is situated in the center of the country. Poland`s surface area of 120,727 sq. miles ranks eighth in Europe. The country lies almost entirely on the North European Plain and is a land of gentle relief, rarely rising above 350 feet except along the southern border with the Sudety and Carpathian mountain ranges. Rysy is the highest mountain peak, 8200 feet above sea level.

Approximately one-fifth of the land is maintained as pasture and meadows. About 27% of the total area is covered by forest. The longest rivers which cross the country northward are the Vistula (667 miles in length) in the center, and the Odra (530 miles) which flows along Poland`s western border.



total area of the country -312,685 km2 (120,727sqm)

territorial sea – 8,7 thousands km2

Poland is the 9th biggest country in Europe, and 63rd in the world


Neighboring countries (border length):


Russia (Kaliningrad District) (210 km)

Lithuania (103 km)

Byelorussia (416 km)

Ukraine (529 km)

Slovakia (539 km)

Czech Republic (790 km)

Germany (467 km)

Length of sea border (528 km)

Total length of national border 3582 km


Poland is mostly lowland.

The average height equals 173 m. Low-laying parts of the country (lower than 300 m) constitute about 91,3% of Poland’s territory, uplands (300-500 m) – 5,6 %, and mountains (over 500 m) only 3,1 %.

Despite the majority of lowland Polish landscape is very varied. Poland is famous for its lakes (there are over 9300 of them) and rivers (main rivers of Poland are Vistula (Wisła) and Odra).

Climate:Continental; moderate, changeable weather.

Average temperatures:


on the coast and the West from 0 to -1

North-East from – 4,5 to – 5,5

In the mountains (South)- 7


on the coast 16,5

In the South 19

Average annual rainfall: 600 mm

The highest mountain`s peak: Rysy (Tatra mountains) 2499 m.

The longest river: Wisła (Vistula) 1047 km.

The biggest lake: Śniardwy (Mazury Lake District)b13,8 km2

The deepest lake: Hańcza 108 m



Do następnego razu… (Till next time…)


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About the Author:Kasia

My name is Kasia Scontsas. I grew up in Lublin, Poland and moved to Warsaw to study International Business. I have passion for languages: any languages! Currently I live in New Hampshire. I enjoy skiing, kayaking, biking and paddle boarding. My husband speaks a little Polish, but our daughters are fluent in it! I wanted to make sure that they can communicate with their Polish relatives in our native language. Teaching them Polish since they were born was the best thing I could have given them! I have been writing about learning Polish language and culture for Transparent Language’s Polish Blog since 2010.


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