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If you look up “for” in a Russian dictionary, you will see at least two options — для and за. I will list some of the most common scenarios where you would use either preposition so you can grasp the difference better.
За expresses someone’s support of a particular cause, candidate, or course of action.
За can also refer to any sort of exchange or specifically a monetary purchase.
A related usage is someone or something representing someone or something else or acting in their/its stead.
За is used to refer to someone’s achievement, especially is that person is being hono(u)red or celebrated for it.
A similar usage is when за refers to something that caused the current situation, often when someone is facing the consequences of their past actions.
Для refers to where or what for something is used or will be applied. In other words, it introduces the “target” or a certain thing or action.
This is a related sense — this describes the objective of a certain course of action.
Sometimes для is used to indicate the recipient of a physical object like a gift.
Для can also mean “in the case of someone” or “from someone’s point of view.”
I hope this helps clear things up a bit!
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