Swedish Pronouns Posted by Tibor on Jul 19, 2010 in Grammar
|Singular and Plural||1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd person||Grundform or Personal Pronouns||Object forms||Possessive||Reflexive||Reflexive possessive|
|singular:||1 person||jag||mig||min||(verb) + mig||min|
|2 person||du||dig||din||(verb) + dig||din|
|3 person||han, hon||honom, henne||hans, hennes||(verb) + sig||sin|
|3 person neutrum||den, det||den, det||dess||(verb) + sig||sin|
|plural||1 person||vi||oss||vår||(verb) + sig||vår|
|2 person||ni||er||er||(verb) + er||er|
|3 person||de/dom||dem||deras||(verb) + sig||sin|
Ok guys. More grammar on the Swedish blog, even though it is hot summer weather and you don´t want to open your books. I am not just giving you a table but of course some explanations to it. There are some things you should be aware of. I think we can skip the personal pronouns because that is easy but let me give you some examples.
a., Personal Pronouns; Hon är vacker och rolig. She´s beautiful and funny. ( In cases like these you don´t have to put out the personal pronoun two times since you are talking about the same person Marie).
b., Object forms; Jag ser honom. I see him. Vi träffade dem igår. We met them yesterday. or De väntar på oss. They are waiting for us. Har du sett den senaste filmen med Sandra Bullock? Have you seen the latest movie with Sandra Bullock? Nej, jag har inte sett den. (Where den referes to the word movie since it is called en film in Swedish so you use the pronoun den. If I hade asked you; Have you seen my umbrella? Then the answer would have been; Nej, jag har inte sett det. Because it is called ett paraply in Swedish.
*Note that in SG/3 in this case people often use han/hon instead of honom and henne in spoken language, especially in Western Sweden. However this use is considered incorrect. But you can hear it a lot so it is good to know. Some lingvists say that in Old Swedish the forms were hon/han and not honom and henne so it might be the original form. Another theory is that people know that it should be henne/honom but we want to save some time when explaining things for example in situations when we both know the object of our conversation: Jag såg (han Christian) igår. And then it easily becomes Jag såg han igår. But you should stick to Jag såg honom igår. That is the correct one or you can say Jag såg Christian igår.
c., Possessive Pronouns; There is never bestämd form i.e definite form of nouns after these pronouns. For example: Mitt hus (since it is called ett hus in Swedish), Min kamera (since it is called en kamera in Swedish), or Våra hus or våra kameror in plural. Find the explanation and tables about Swedish plurals here. It is also good to know that in PL1 and 2 forms can be pronounced as våran and eran but vår and er are also common of course. Only in spoken language but in written we always stick to the rules! Also note that I haven´t added the t-forms like vårt hus, ert hus and the plurals like våra hus and era hus in the table but they are in use. The forms are always depended on the article of the noun. If it is ett hus then you´ll get vårt, ert, if it is for example en bil, en man, en dotter you would get vår and er.
d., Reflexive Pronouns; You have some reflexive forms and might have some reflexive verbs in your language as well (like in German for example), but they seldom match with Swedish or they have other functions in other languages, so I recommend you to learn the reflexive verbs/phrases by heart like for instance: kamma sig (we say: to comb oneself), tvättar sig (to wash oneself) lägger sig (to lie down). Jag är jättetrött och ska lägga mig en stund. I am very tired I´ll lie down a bit. Note that in English you use a so called phrasal verb (verb + preposition) to express this action. You wouldn´t say in English “I lie myself but it is exactly what you say in Swedish”.
Jag lägger mig, Du lägger dig, Han/Hon/Den/Det lägger sig, Vi lägger oss, Ni lägger er, De lägger sig.
e., Reflexive possessive; In this case to make a huge and hard topic blog short I would say that you should think about (one´s own) in English whenever using or hearing these constructions in Swedish. For example. Hon kom med sitt barn på mötet. She came with her (own) child to the meeting while Hon kom med hennes barn på mötet. She came with her (another woman´s child) child to the meeting. Don´t mix the two! Think always about that it is yours/someone else´s own something you talk about. You use sitt in case of t-forms like in the example and sin in case of n-forms like. Han körde sin blåa bil. He drove his (own) blue car. Also note that I havn´t added sina in plural in this table. It functions as a plural form for both sitt and sin. For example: Hon kom med sina döttrar på mötet. She came with her (own) daughters to the meeting or Hon sålde sina två hus i Málaga. She sold her two (own) houses in Málaga.
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