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(1) هذا = ذا = (he-This) :
It refers to near masculine singular nouns; (persons and things)
Examples: – This is a poet.= هذا شاعر
– This is a book. = هذا كتاب
(2) ذلك =ذاك = (That) :
It refers to faraway masculine singular nouns; (things only).
Examples : – That is the Book no doubt in it. =ذلك الكتاب لا ريب فيه
– Like father like son. (proverb) = هذا الشبل من ذاك الأسد
(3) هذه= ذه = ذى = هذى = (she-This) :
It refers to near feminine singular nouns; (persons and things).
Examples: – This is a girl. = هذه بنت
– This is a tree. = هذه شجرة
– These are trees. = هذه أشجار
– These are schools. =هذه مدارس
(Note: هذه is also more common with plural non-human nouns instead of هؤلاء .)
(4) تلك = (That/Those) :
It refers to faraway feminine singular or plural nouns; (persons or things).
Examples: – That is a girl. = تلك فتاة
– That is a tree. = تلك شجرة
– Those are trees. = تلك أشجار
(5) هذان = ذان = (These two = Both) :
It refers to near dual masculine nouns.
Examples: – These are two boys. = هذان ولدان.
– These are two books. = هذان كتابان.
(6) هاتان = تان (These two = Both) :
It refers to near dual feminine nouns.
Examples: – These are two girls. = هاتان بنتان
– These are two papers. = هاتان صحيفتان
(Note: When you apply the dual suffix ( ان /ين ) to a noun ending in the closed (marboota) Ta’a, this Ta’a changes to an open Ta’a to allow more letters to be added to the word.)
(7) هؤلاء = أولاء = أولى = أولئك = (These / Those) :
It refers to near plural masculine or feminine nouns; (persons or things).
Examples: – These are heroes. = هؤلاء / أولئك أبطال
– Those are girls. = هؤلاء فتيات
(8) هنا = (Here) :
It refers to near places.
Examples: – Here is the school. = هنا المدرسة
– Here are the schools. = هنا المدارس
– The hotel is here. = هنا الفندق
(9) هناك = هنالك = (There) :
It refers to faraway places.
Examples: – There is a school next to the bank. = هناك مدرسة بجوار البنك
– There are schools. = هناك مدارس
– There is a hotel. = هنالك فندق
– There are hotels. = هنالك فنادق
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