Arabic Prepositions (Part 2) حروف الجر Posted by Fisal on Sep 23, 2011 in Arabic Language, Grammar, Vocabulary
- Prepositions are very important words in any language.
- Today, we are going to learn the Arabic prepositions and their meanings.
- Arabic preposition particles are Mabni words كلمات مبنية which means that they mostly have a fixed pronunciation regardless of their position in the sentence.
- These words also inflect the noun that follows them and cause it to end in a Kasrah.
- There are about twenty one prepositions mentioned by the famous Arab grammarian; Ibn Maalik ابن مالك :
هــاك حــروف الـجـــر و هــــي : مِـِن , إلى حتـّى , خلا , حاشا , عدا , في , عن , على
مـُـذ , مـُـنذ , رُبّ , اللام , كي , واو , و تا و الــكــاف , و الــبـــاء , و لعــل , و مـتـى
* In my previous post, I presented some six prepositions. Today, we are going discuss the meanings and uses of some more common ones:
7) الكاف = (like or as)
This preposition expresses simile التشبيه meaning “like” or “as“.
Ex. – الأمانيُّ الخادعةُ كالسرابِ= False hopes are like mirage.
– هو يعمل كالآلةِ = He works like a machine. .
– هي تعمل كطبيبةٍ = She works as a doctor.
8) اللام = (to or for)
This preposition can refer to the reason or the possession.
Ex. – لـلهِ ما فى السماواتِ و ما فى الأرضِ
= Belongs to Allah is all what is in heaven and what is in earth.
– النجاحُ لِلمجتهدين = Success is for the hard-working.
– يذهب الطلابُ للمدرسةِ للتعلمِ = Students go to school to learn (for learning).
9) واو القسم = (I swear to / by)
This (و )Waw is used for swearing.
Ex. – و الضحى . و الليل إذا سجى
= By the morning hours. And by the night when it is stillest.
10) تاء القسم = (I swear to / by)
This (تا) Ta’a is only used for swearing by Allah (God) and is used only with Allah.
Ex. – تاللهِ لأساعِدنك = I swear to / by God that I will help you.
11) حتى = (till / until)
This preposition refers to finishing something or the end of something.
Ex. يتعلم الناسُ حتى يموتون = People learn till they die.
12) خلا = عدا = حاشا = (except for)
These three prepositions mean the same and are used to make exceptions.
Ex. – حضر جميع الطلابِ عدا / خلا / حاشا على و أحمد
= All the students attended except for Ali and Ahmad.
(Note: Ibn Maalik has written all the Arabic Grammar in a thousand verses of poetry.)
(Note: To listen to the pronunciation of these prepositions, visit and subscribe to our Arabic Youtube channel at http://www.youtube.com/user/ArabicTransparent )
- Check out Arabic Prepositions (Part 1)
Check us back soon
Peace سلام /Salam/
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I’d like to know how to use إلي and علي. Would you please tell me the differences? Thanks
@S Ahlan, S. Simply إلى refers to the direction (= to) e.g. أذهب إلى العمل كل يوم = I go to work everyday. Whereas, على refers to the position or place, e.g. الكتاب على الطاولة = The book is on the table.
I’m a non-Arabic speaker learning Arabic.
As I understand, a noun following a preposition gets inflected and goes into جر. But when it comes to the preposition حَتَّىٰ I always see it followed by a verb and I do not understand where to look for the inflected noun.
Also can you please give some example ayaat from the Quran for this preposition حَتَّىٰ . I am not sure if حَتَّىٰ
is a preposition in 47:31, 52:45, 15:99 of the Quran for the same reasons.