Hindi or Urdu? Posted by Nitin Kumar on Oct 7, 2012 in Hindi Language
You might have heard about Hindi and Urdu and wondered, what the difference between the two languages? Are they same?
Hindi is originated from 9th to 11th century. Thereafter, the Islamic invaders have promoted and forced the use of their own tongue to the Indians, be it Turkish, Persian as well as Pashto. Because of that, many words of these languages entered into the vocabulary of people. Arabic words also came along because of their prominence in Persian and its importance because of religion of Islam. An entirely new language like Urdu is made from Hindi and promoted for the Islamic courts just like British rule favored the use of English from 18th century onward.
There are some striking differences between Hindi and Urdu. First, Hindi uses Devanagari script which is used by Sanskrit while Urdu uses script from Persian. Second, Hindi uses more words derived from Sanskrit and lesser words which are loaned from Urdu while Urdu uses more words which are derived from Arabic, Turkish and Persian.
The biggest similarity between the two is, both use the same grammatical structure which is derived from Sanskrit including verbs. Hence, both of the languages, be it Hindi and Urdu originated indirectly from Sanskrit. For example,
वो काम करता है? – Wo kaam karta hai? – Does he works?
Where काम (kaam – work) comes from कर्म (karm) from Sanskrit.
Both of the languages use the same verbs like “kaam karna” (काम करना – to work). However, the vocabulary is different because of the origin of their derived words.
हृदय (Hardaya) and दिल (Dil) is used for Heart in Hindi and Urdu respectively. Other words like धन्यवाद (dhanyavad – thanks) of Hindi धन्य Dhanya) and शुक्रिया Shukriya (Arabic, Shukran)
Many don’t realize this fact because they have been conditioned by popular media such as films. Those films are labeled as Hindi films but mixture of Hindi and Urdu. Many films as well as media such as daily soaps, magazine etc are using more and more words from Urdu without even realizing it.
List is long but I would like to point to some of Urdu words which are infrequently used by the native Hindi speakers:
|दोस्त – Dost||मित्र – Mitr||Friend|
|शुक्रिया – Shukriya||धन्यवाद – Dhanyavad||Thank/Thank you|
|दिल – Dil||हृदय – Hardiya||Heart|
|औरत – Aurat||स्त्री – Stri||Woman|
|आज़ादी – Azadi||स्वतन्त्रता – Svatantrata||Independence|
|कानून – Kanoon||नियम – Niyam||Rule/Law|
|साहब – Sahab||श्रीमान – Shrimaan||Mister|
|खून – Khoon||रक्त – Rakt||Blood|
|इमारत – Imaarat||भवन – Bhavan||Building|
|दिन – Din||दिवस – Divas||Day|
|हालत – Halat||स्थिति – Sthithi||Condition|
|कमरा – Kamara||कक्ष – Kaksh||Room|
|दरवाजा – Darwaza||द्वार – Dwar||Door|