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Latin Grammar: Pronouns Posted by on Sep 30, 2020 in Latin Language

Salvete Omnes,

Let us return to some basics. In preparation for some future translations, let us review the Latin Pronouns.

Fasti Antiates maiores – zoom. Owner Patatruc. WikiCommons

Pronouns are used as Nouns or as Adjectives. Pronouns have special declension forms, which may vary between substantive and adjectival use. They are divided into seven
classes:

Personal Pronouns: ego, I.

Latin has cases we are familiar with in English: subject (nominative), object (actually more than one case), possessive (genitive usually). But there is also a dative, accusative, and ablative cases.

Latin declines masculine, feminine, and neuter personal pronouns in the plural as well as the singular. English, on the other hand, uses the generic, gender-neutral “they,” “them” and “theirs.”

Case / Person 1st sing. (I) 2nd sing. (you) 3rd sing.
(he, she, it)
1st pl. (we) 2nd pl. (you) 3rd pl. (they)
NOM ego tu is, ea, id nos vos ei, eae, ea
GEN mei tui eius nostri vestri eorum, earum, eorum
DAT mihi tibi ei nobis vobis eis
ACC me te eum, eam, id nos vos eos, eas, ea
ABL me te eo, ea, eo nobis vobis eis

Reflexive Pronouns:  se, himself.
Possessive Pronouns:  meus, my.
Demonstrative Pronouns: his, this; ille, that.

  1. Ille (that),
  2. Hic (this),
  3. Iste (that), and
  4. The determinative Is (this, that)
Singular Plural
Nominative Ille Illi
Genitive Illius Illorum
Dative Illi Illis
Accusative Illum Illos
Ablative Illo Illis

 

Feminine Masculine Neuter
Singular
Nominative Haec Hic Hoc
Genitive Huius Huius Huius
Dative Huic Huic Huic
Accusative Hanc Hunc Hoc
Ablative Hac Hoc Hoc
Vocative
Plural
Nominative Hae Hi Haec
Genitive Harum Horum Horum
Dative His His His
Accusative Has Hos Haec
Ablative His His His
Vocative

Relative Pronouns:  qui, who.

Singular

Plural

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Nominative

qui

quae

quod

qui

quae

quae

Accusative

quem

quam

quod

quos

quas

quae

Genitive

cuius

quorum

quarum

quorum

Dative

cui

quibus

Ablative

quo

qua

quo

quibus

 

 

 

Interrogative Pronouns:  quis, who?

Singular

Plural

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Nominative

quis (qui)

quae

quid (quod)

qui

quae

quae

Accusative

quem

quam

quid (quod)

quos

quas

quae

Genitive

cuius

quorum

quarum

quorum

Dative

cui

quibus

Ablative

quo

qua

quo

quibus

Indefinite Pronouns:  aliquis, some one.

  • aliquis, aliqua, aliquid (-od): someone, something.
  • quidam, quaedam, quiddam (quoddam): some, someone.
  • quisque,quaeque, quidque (quodque): each one.
  • quivis, quaevis, quidvis(quodvis): any.
  • quilibet, quaelibet, quidlibet (quodlibet): any.
  • quisquam (masc. and fem.), quicquam (quidquam): someone, something (used mainly in negative sentences or doubtful sentences).
  • alius, alia, aliud: other (when it comes to more than two).
  • alter, altera, alterum: the other, the second one (in the case of two).
  • totus, -a, -um: all, the whole.
  • solus, -a, -um: only.
  • ullus, -a, -um: some, one.
  • nullus, -a, -um: none.
  • uterque, utraque, utrumque: each one, both.
  • neuter, neutra, neutrum: none of who, either.
  • nemo: no-one, nobody (sonly used in nominative –nemo-, accusative –neminem-, and dative –nemini-).
  • nihil: nothing (neuter form used only in nominative and accusative).

Demonstratives pronouns are:

 

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About the Author: Brittany Britanniae

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