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Latin Numerals Posted by on Feb 25, 2012 in Latin Language

The cardinal numerals

The cardinal numerals express the number or quantity. Most of the cardinal did not decline, the only ones that were declined are:

 

 UNO

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Nominative

unus

una

unum

Accusative

 unum

unam

unum

Genitive

 unius

Dative

 uni

Ablative

 uno

una

uno

 

DOS

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Nominative

duo

duae

duo

Accusative

 duos

duas

duo

Genitive  duorum duarum duorum
Dative  duobus duabus duobus
Ablative  duobus duabus duobus

 

 TRES

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Nominative

tres

tria

Accusative

 tres

tria

Genitive

 trium

Dative

 tribus

Ablative

 tribus

The numeral centum (“hundred”) can not be declined, but the other hundreds are declined like the plural of an adjective of the first class.

The numeral mille (‘thousand’)can not be declined, but the other thousands are expressed by the plural milia, milium, which is declined as an neuter of the third declension.

The ordinal numerals

The ordinal numerals add to the idea of number ​​the idea of ​​order. They are declined like adjectives of the first class. It is usually used for years (anno vicesimo tertio), hours (hora nona), the books which are part of a work (liber septimus) in the names of kings (Ptolomaeus tertius) in the fractions (tertia pars), and with the duration accusative (vicesimum annum iam regnat).
  • simplex, simplicis: simple.
  • duplex, duplicis: double.
  • triplex, triplicis: triple.
  • quadruplex, quadruplicis: quadruple.
  • quintuplex, quintuplicis: quintuple.
  • decemplex, decemplicis: tenfold.
  • centumplex, centumplicis: hundredfold.

 

The distributive numerals

Indicate groups of individuals, so singular form does not exist. They are declined like adjectives of the first class. Retains its value distribution to indicate:

  • The distribution for person or objects: veteranis quingenos denarios dat (veterans are given five hundred pence each)
  • The multiplicand of a multiplication: quater septeni (four times seven)

 

With no distribution value, replacing a cardinal numeral, the distributive is used:
  • With names of objects that are paired: binos scyphos habebam (I had a couple of cups)
  • Accompanying nouns that are used only in plural: bina castra (two camps), ternae litterae (three letters)
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