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Case marking of nominal sentences Posted by on Jun 29, 2019 in Arabic Language, Grammar

Case marking (الإعراب) is a very important grammatical concept in Arabic. In this post, we learn how to case mark nominal sentences.

The nominal sentence (الجملة الإسمية) is a sentence that begins by a noun or a pronoun. The nominal sentence has two main components: the subject (المبتدأ) and the predicate (الخبر). Both parts of the nominal sentence are nominative (مرفوع). Consider the following examples:

محمدٌ طالبٌ.

الطالبُ مجتهدٌ.

البنتُ جميلةٌ.

الفستانُ طويلٌ.

If the subject of the nominal sentence is a pronoun or a demonstrative, it has a fixed ending which does not change according to the case, although it is still nominative, e.g.

هوَ طالبٌ.

أنتَ مجتهدٌ.

هيَ جميلةٌ.

هذا طويلٌ.

If the predicate of the nominal sentence is a prepositional phrase, it is marked as appropriate for a preposition and a genitive noun after it, e.g.

محمدٌ في الجامعةِ.

الطالبُ من السعوديةِ.

البنتُ في الحديقةِ.

If the predicate of the nominal sentence is a verb, it is marked as appropriate for a verb, e.g.

محمدٌ سافرَ.

الطالبُ يدرسُ.

البنتُ تتكلمُ.

In sum, nominal sentences are made up of two parts, a subject and a predicate. Both parts are nominative. The nominative marking shows on them if they are nouns or adjectives. If one of them is a pronoun, it has fixed ending. If the predicate is a prepositional phrase or a verb, it is marked as appropriate for a prepositional phrase or a verb.

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Comments:

  1. Sukran Karatas:

    Case marking of nominal sentences
    There are these sentences under this title
    محمدٌ سافرَ
    الطالبُ يدرسُ.
    البنتُ تتكلمُ.
    Are these verbal sentences?
    Note:1 sorry the words changed places when I copied here.
    Note:2 Thank you for your afford and this is my web-page Book ‘Deity’ is very useful book and free download. Please you can pass over to people also for more benefit of it inshallah.

    • aziza:

      @Sukran Karatas Hello,
      Thank you very much for your comment. These are nominal sentences with a verb as their predicate. The main feature of nominal sentences is that they begin with a nour or equivalent to be the subject, and the predicate can be another noun, adjective, verb, prepositional phrase, or even another sentencee.