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Circumfix “ke-… -an” + Adjectives to form an abstract noun Posted by on Aug 31, 2018 in Uncategorized

Form:
Adjective: keadjective root wordan

Circumfix “ke-…-an” forms nouns from adjectives, verbs and other classes. In this posting, we will only focus on nouns made from adjectives.
Adjectives can be transformed into abstract noun by applying circumfix “ke-…-an” to them. So the nouns can be constructed only by the addition of the prefix “ke-” and the suffix “–an” to the base. If the base is adjectival, it means “state or quality of being.”

Root word English “ke-…-an” noun, the root of which is adjective English
baik good; well kebaikan kindness; goodness
cantik beautiful kecantikan beauty
kaya rich kekayaan wealth
sehat healthy kesehatan health
berani courageous keberanian courage

Compound word English “ke- -an” noun, the root of which is adjective English
tidak adil – unjust – ketidakadilan – injustice
tidak cocok – incompatible – ketidakcocokan – incompatibility
tidak jujur – dishonest – ketidakjujuran – dishonesty
tidak aman – insecure – ketidakamanan insecurity
tidak ramah – unfriendly – ketidakramahan – unfriendliness


NOTE

Pay attention to “ke-…-an” words with dual meanings. Depending on how we use them in context, they may indicate one thing or the other.

More examples:
“Ke-…-an” word Adjective Abstract noun

kelaparan – struck by hunger (starving) – hunger
kepanjangan – too long – unabbreviated form (e.g. of a name “Kepanjangan namanya….)
kependekan – too short abbreviated form(e.g. of a name “Kependekkan namanya….)
kepedasan – too spicy – spiciness
ketipisan – too thin – thinness (not for body)

Do you find the pattern?

Generally the meaning of the noun can be predicted from the meaning of the root word and the context of the sentence.

Grammar Practice
1. Presiden memberi tanda jasa kepada para pahlawan atas (courage) mereka melawan penjajah.
2. Menteri Kesehatan Indonesia mendapat (honor) untuk membuka Pameran Obat Tradisional.
3. Dokter-dokter angkatan darat mengikuti latihan (readiness) merawat penderita sakit dalam latihan perang di Pantai Pasir Putih.
4. Waktu menonton film Paranormal Activity, banyak penonton berteriak (scared).
5. Pasukan penjaga perdamaian Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa membantu pemerintah Afganistan menanggulangi (insecurity) di negara tersebut.
6. Kita harus memiliki (health) yang prima selama musim dingin.
7. (Habit)nya bangun pagi membuat dia berumur panjang.
8. Berkat (skill)nya, penerbang itu berhasil mendaratkan pesawatnya dengan selamat di atas sungai.
9. Harga minyak dunia cukup stabil karena ada (balance) antara permintaan dan penawaran.
10. Tingkat (death) bayi di pedesaan sangat tinggi.

Answer key
1. keberanian 6. kesehatan
2. kehormatan 7. kebiasaan
3. kesiapan 8. kemampuan
4. ketakutan 9. keseimbangan
5. ketidakamanan 10. kematian

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About the Author: asimonoff

I’m an Indonesian language instructor, instructional material developer, reading test developer, and interpreter. I have been teaching Indonesian to adult students for 15 years, and have been teaching students from many backgrounds, such as private, military and diplomatic service employees. I’m Indonesian, but am living in the US now; my exposure to different cultures in my home country and in the US has enriched my knowledge in teaching Indonesian as a second language. I approach the teaching of the Indonesian language by developing students’ critical cultural awareness and competence. This method of teaching has been proven to be a key to the success of my students. Students become conscious of the essential role culture plays in the language.