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Learning Latin Basics: Lesson II Posted by on Dec 10, 2014 in Latin Language

Salvete Omnes,

We have much to cover today! We are going to review the 1st and 2nd Conjugations and Declensions along with some sentence work.

 

 VERBS

1st Conjugation “Amo= I love”

1st s.= amo  “ I love, I do love, I am loving”

2nd s.= amas “You love”

3rd s.= amat “He loves, She love, It loves”

1st pl.=amamus “We love”

2nd pl.=amatis “You (plural) love)”

3rd pl.=amant “ They love”

  • One indicator of a 1st conjugation verb is the before the stem (which is underlined) there is usually an “a” in other forms. However, there is just an “o” ending in the 1st s. form.

2nd Conjugation “Habeo= I have”

1st s.= habeo “I have”

2nd s.= habes “You have”

3rd s.= habet “He has, She has, It has”

1st pl.= habemus “We have”

2nd pl.= habetis “You (plural) have”

3rd pl. =habent “They have”

  • As with the 1st conjugation and the “a” indicator, the 2nd conjugation will have an “e” in its 1st s. form.

Conjugate Exercise:

  1. Celo (1st conjugation)
  2. Timeo (2nd conjugation)
  3. Porto(1st conjugation)
  4. Habeo(2nd conjugation)
  5. Sum (Irregular Cojugation)**

**If you have already forgotten how to conjugate sum, take a look at last week’s post!

 

NOUNS

Nouns in Latin, unlike in English, change depending on the role in a sentence. By change, I mean, that the endings on the noun will change to either a nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative (or vocative and locative- which aren’t used as much).

 

1st Declension is the declension to refer to nouns that “decline” to the following forms; which are usually feminine (99% of the time):

aqua, –ae water f. (feminine)
Singular Plural
Nominative aqua –a aquae –ae
Accusative aquam –am aquās –ās
Genitive aquae –ae aquārum –ārum
Dative aquae –ae aquīs –īs
Ablative aquā –ā aquīs –īs
     

If you noticed that most of endings have an “a” in them. [Sorta reminds you of the 1st conjugation verbs with the “a” stem.]

2nd Declension is the declension to refer to nouns that “decline” to the following forms; which are usually masculine (99% of the time):

dominus, –ī master m. (masculine)
Singular Plural
Nominative dominus –us dominī –ī
Accusative dominum –um dominōs –ōs
Genitive dominī –ī dominōrum –ōrum
Dative dominō –ō dominīs –īs
Ablative dominō –ō dominīs –īs
  

Notes on Declensions:

If you noticed that the endings do not have a common vowel, but in comparison to the 1st Declension- it is similar except for the “a” being replaced” with “u” in the singular, “o” in the plural and “ae” [mostly] replaced with “i.”

Please do not be thrown off or worried that the dative and ablative plural in the 1st and 2nd declension are the same. It is important simply to familiarize yourself with these forms.

 

Also did you notice that when these nouns were written out; they looked like: “dominus, -i” and “ aqua, -ae?” This is to show the Nominative singular form and then the ending to the Genitive singular form. This will assist in providing which declension a noun is since (“-us & -i” endings are clearly 2nd declension while “-a & -ae” are clearly 1st declension).

 

Nominative & Accusative:

The nominative case is used for the subject in a sentence. The accusative is the direct object of the sentence:

I love cats. I= nominative, love= verb, cats= accusative.

Are you following so far? Let’s look at some Latin.

 

Vocabulary:

Filia, -ae =daughter             timeo= I am afraid, I fear             voco= I call

Serua, -ae= slave-woman     et= and                                    aula, -ae=pot

Seruus, -i= slave-man        ego= I                                      thesaurus, -i= treasure

Coquus,-i=cook                 tu= you                                            amo= I love

te= you (accusative)           me=me                                   habeo= I have

Exercise:

  1. filiam coqui vocant.
  2. The slave-women are afraid.
  3. thesauros ego amo.
  4. Seruas et Seruos Filae habent.
  5. You have a pot.
  6. serua timet seruos.
  7. The cook loves the female-slave.
  8. ego et tu habent aulas.
  9. The daughter calls you and me.
  10. filia amat seruum, et seruum amat seruam.

 

 

 

Answer:

  1. The cooks call the daughter
  2. timent seruae
  3. I love treasures.
  4. The daughter has slave-men and slave-women.
  5. habes aulam OR habetis aulam.
  6. The slave woman fears the slave-men.
  7. coquus seruam amat.
  8. You and I have pots.
  9. te et me filia vocat.
  10. The daughter loves the slave-man, and the slave-man loves the slave-woman.

 

NEXT WEEK:

Does anyone have any request? If not I have a few surprises up my sleeve!

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About the Author: Brittany Britanniae

Hello There! Please feel free to ask me anything about Latin Grammar, Syntax, or the Ancient World.


Comments:

  1. Heather:

    Thanks so much for posting this lesson, I appreciate it! Looking forward to seeing what you have planned.