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Phoric & emphatic pronouns Posted by on Apr 23, 2012 in Latin Language

Phoric pronouns

 

Singular

Plural

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Nominative

is

ea

id

ei (ii)

eae

ea

Accusative

eum

eam

id

eos

eas

ea

Genitive

eius

eorum

earum

eorum

Dative

ei

eis (iis)

Ablative

eo

ea

eo

eis (iis)

 

As the name suggests, its main function is the phoric: it is used to point attention to something that has already been appointed (anaphoric) or something that will be appointed (cataphoric).

But it can also present an emphatic function, especially when it amounts to adjectives talis, tantus … as a correlate of a consecutive sentence:

Non sum is qui morte terrear = I am not such a person that death terrifies me

Lacking Latin language of third person personal pronouns, is pronoun may fulfill this function:

Eum vidi = I saw him

The is phoric pronoun is used, in genitive, as a possessive non-reflexive (when the holder is not the subject of the sentence):

Hannibal cum Romanis pugnavit eorumque exercitum vicit = Hannibal fought the Romans and defeated their (Roman) army

Is pronoun is frequently used as antecedent of relative. If the verb of the relative clause appears in the subjunctive, the value of is is emphatic. If the verb of the relative clause is in the indicative, is purely a phoric pronoun:

E civibus eligi debet is qui civibus imperaturus est = it must be chosen from among citizens who will rule the citizens

Emphatic pronouns

Singular

Plural

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Nominative

ipse

ipsa

ipsum

ipsi

ipsae

ipsa

Accusative

ipsum

ipsam

ipsum

ipsos

ipsas

ipsa

Genitive

ipsius

ipsorum

ipsarum

ipsorum

Dative

ipsi

ipsis

Ablative

ipso

ipsa

ipso

ipsis

 

As the name suggests, its main function is emphatic: it reinforces the grammatical unit that enters. It means ‘self’ or ‘own’:

Ipse vidi = I saw it myself

Ipse dixisti = You said it yourself

Medice, cura te ipsum = Doctor, heal yourself

It is sometimes used as third person pronoun, pointing the original value of opposition that this pronoun had:

Caesar milites in proxima municipia deducit; ipse ad urbem proficiscitur = Caesar led his troops to nearby towns, he, for his part, departed to Rome

 

Phoric-emphatic pronouns

 

Singular

Plural

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Nominative

idem

eadem

idem

eidem (iidem)

eaedem

eadem

Accusative

eundem

eandem

idem

eosdem

easdem

eadem

Genitive

eiusdem

eorundem

earundem

eorundem

Dative

eidem

eisdem (iisdem)

Ablative

eodem

eadem

eodem

eisdem (iisdem)

Also called pronoun of identity, it has the phoric function (pointing to something that has already been mentioned in the text) and emphatic function (reinforce the designated subject). His translation is ‘the same, same …’

Omnes eadem porta intraverant = they all went through the same door

Is formed like the phoric pronoun (with slight phonetic changes) plus the invariable particle dem (which emphasizes the idea of ​​identity [~ ‘precisely’]).

Is often used to add a new qualification to a noun, similar or opposite:

Vir honestissimus idemque doctissimus = a very honest man and also very wise

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Comments:

  1. Monima O'Connor:

    Why Hannibal cum Romanis pugnavit ? Surely that translates as ‘Hannibal fought with the Romans “.?
    . If it were the former, surely it would have translated as ‘ Hannibal Romanos pugnaverunt’ ?