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Relative, interrogative-indefinite & other pronouns Posted by on Apr 26, 2012 in Latin Language

Relative pronouns

 

Singular

Plural

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Nominative

qui

quae

quod

qui

quae

quae

Accusative

quem

quam

quod

quos

quas

quae

Genitive

cuius

quorum

quarum

quorum

Dative

cui

quibus

Ablative

quo

qua

quo

quibus

The relative pronoun’s only function is the phoric, as it always refers to the antecedent, with which it agrees in gender and number.

The main use of the relative pronoun is the nexus for introducing subordinate adjective or relative clauses.

Sallutius bellum scripsit quod Populus Romanus cum Iugurtha fecit = Sallust wrote the war that Roman people made against Jugurtha

 

Interrogative-indefinite pronouns

 

Singular

Plural

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

Nominative

quis (qui)

quae

quid (quod)

qui

quae

quae

Accusative

quem

quam

quid (quod)

quos

quas

quae

Genitive

cuius

quorum

quarum

quorum

Dative

cui

quibus

Ablative

quo

qua

quo

quibus

The interrogative pronoun-adjective (who, what) and the indefinite pronoun (someone, something) are identically declined, with the exception that the indefinite adds two more ways: qua, in the feminine singular nominative form, and also qua in the neuter plural nominative. Except in some forms of the nominative, its decline is exactly equal to the relative pronoun.

As for the role of the interrogative pronoun, there are two possibilities: a) phoric function, it points to the answer, b) negative emphatic function, because it marks the indeterminacy of the subject that makes the question.

It is said that the quis, quid forms of the singular masculine and neuter are used as interrogative pronouns, while forms qui, quod appear as interrogative adjectives:

Quis venit? = Who came?

Qui servus venit? = What slave came?

Quid accidit? = What happens?

Quod templum ruit? = What temple is collapsing?

El pronombre interrogativo se usa para introducir tanto interrogativas directas (sirvan de ejemplo las frases anteriores) como interrogativas subordinadas o indirectas:

Nescio quis venerit = I don’t know who’s come

The indefinite pronoun quis‘ main role is the emphatic negative function, as it marks the indeterminacy of the sender. Some may also have indefinite phoric function as alius and alter, which refer to things or beings already mentioned or known.

This indefinite quis is less used than some of its compound forms (aliquis), and often appears as a subjunctive function behind si, nisi, ne and interrogative particle num:

Si quis hoc dicit, errat = if someone says that, he is wrong

Si qui mihi deus vestram ad me audiendum benevolentiam conciliarit… = if some god grant me your willingness to listen to me…

Caveant consules ne quid detrimenti res publica capiat = consuls may take care that the republic will not be damaged

Other indefinite pronouns

Pronounds compound from quis:

  • aliquis, aliqua, aliquid (-od): someone, something.
  • quidam, quaedam, quiddam (quoddam): some, someone.
  • quisque,quaeque, quidque (quodque): each one.
  • quivis, quaevis, quidvis(quodvis): any.
  • quilibet, quaelibet, quidlibet (quodlibet): any.
  • quisquam (masc. and fem.), quicquam (quidquam): someone, something (used mainly in negative sentences or doubtful sentences).

Other indefinite pronouns:

  • alius, alia, aliud: other (when it comes to more than two).
  • alter, altera, alterum: the other, the second one (in the case of two).
  • totus, -a, -um: all, the whole.
  • solus, -a, -um: only.
  • ullus, -a, -um: some, one.
  • nullus, -a, -um: none.
  • uterque, utraque, utrumque: each one, both.
  • neuter, neutra, neutrum: none of who, either.
  • nemo: no-one, nobody (sonly used in nominative –nemo-, accusative –neminem-, and dative –nemini-).
  • nihil: nothing (neuter form used only in nominative and accusative).

 

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Comments:

  1. joseph:

    DR. QuisQuaeQuod!


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