Cleachtadh leis na focail ‘orlach,’ ‘troigh’ agus ‘cos’ (Inches and Feet in Irish)

Posted on 09. Mar, 2015 by in Irish Language

(le Róislín)

While we’re still on the theme (téama) of inches (orlaí) and both kinds of feet (troithe agus cosa), perhaps you’d like to try these titles (teidil) and names (ainmneacha) from the fields of cinema and music.  The exact number of blanks to be filled in are given, based on the words “orlach,” “cos,” and “troigh.”  Freagraí thíos.

  1. Hedwig agus an  __ __ __ __ __ __ __  Feargach (NB: seacht mbearna le líonadh)
  2. Tairní Naoi  __ __ __ __ __ __
  3. __ __ __ __ __ __  ar Airde, Bleachtaire (sorry, the Irish doesn’t have the catchy rhyme of the original English)
  4. Mo  __ __ __ __  Chlé
  5. __ __ __  Coinín
  6. Ionsaí an Chola 30  __ __ __ __ __ __ (ní shílim go bhfuil Gaeilge ar bith ar “Chola”)
  7. __ __ __  Amháin in Ifreann
  8. __ __ __  Amháin san Uaigh
  9. Sé  __ __ __ __ __ __ __  faoin bhFód (i.e. “I gCré na Cille,” but that doesn’t capture using the measurement)
  10. Ionsaí na Mná Caoga  __ __ __ __ __ __ (agus cineál “spin-off” de, Ionsaí an Gharthóra Mholta Caoga  __ __ __ __ __ __).

And one last “unit of measurement” title that’s not in inches, feet, centimeters, or kilometers:

  1. Fiche Míle  __ __ __ __  faoi na Farraigí (NB: sa Bhéarla, tá an focal “farraige” uatha, i.e. “under the sea,” ach sa Fhraincis agus sa Ghaeilge, tá an focal iolra, i.e. “sous les mersagus “faoi na farraigí.”  Sin an Ghaeilge mar thagairt don leabhar — fad m’eolais, níl aistriúchán ann).

Tá súil agam gur bhain tú sult as sin agus gur cleachtadh maith a bhí ann.   SGF — Róislín

Freagraí

  1. Hedwig agus an tOrlach Feargach (2001): Hedwig and the Angry Inch
  2. Tairní Naoi nOrlaí (bunaithe 1988, ag seinm fós): Nine Foot Nails
  3. Orlach ar Airde, Bleachtaire (1973): Inch High, Private Eye (mar a dúirt mé thuas, gan rím an Bhéarla)
  4. Mo Chos Chlé (1989): My Left Foot
  5. Cos Coinín (cláracha agus scannáin éagsúla: 1954, 2004, 2012, 2014): Rabbit’s Foot Rabbit Foot. Agus, lena “chois” sin (for good measure), An Chos Coinín Ámharach (1963) sa tsraith Dennis the Menace (1959-63). Tabhair faoi deara nach “Cos an Choinín Ámharaigh” atá i gceist mar ní “ámharach” a bhí an coinín atá i gceist! I mBéarla, tuigeann muid “the rabbit’s foot that is lucky” as “The Lucky Rabbit’s Foot” ach de réir na bhfocal, is féidir linn “the foot of the lucky rabbit” a thuiscint as freisin.
  6. Ionsaí an Chola 30 Troigh (2014): The Attack of the 30 Foot Chola. Ní shílim go bhfuil Gaeilge ar bith ar “Chola.”
  7. Cos Amháin in Ifreann (1960), One Foot in Hell
  8. Cos Amháin san Uaigh (1990), One Foot in the Grave
  9. Sé Troithe faoin bhFód (2001-2005, i.e. “i gcré na cille,” but that doesn’t capture using the measurement): Six Feet Under
  10. Ionsaí na Mná Caoga Troigh (1958): Attack of the 50-ft. Womanagus cineál “spin-off” de, Ionsaí an Gharthóra Mholta Caoga Troigh (2012), Attack of the 50 ft. Cheerleadernó b’fhéidir go mbeadh sé ní b’fhearr “bangharthóir” a úsáid (agus “an bhangharthóra mholta”). B’fhéidir gur cineál spin-off eile de a bhí sa scannán An Bhrídeach Tríocha Troigh ó Charraig an Chandaí (1959): The Thirty Foot Bride of Candy Rock.

Agus leis na huimhreacha scríofa ina ndigití:  Ionsaí na Mná 50 Troigh, Ionsaí an (Bhan)Gharthóir Mholta 50 Troigh, agus An Bhrídeach 30 Troigh ó Charraig an Chandaí.  Agus mar phointe mioneolais, athraíodh na “troithe” go “méadair” i gcuid de na teidil atá ar an scannán deireanach in áiteanna a úsáideann an córas méadrach.  Seo cúpla sampla:

Die 9-Meter Braut (Gearmáinis)

La novia de nueve metros (Spáinnis, Meicsiceo)

Mnisti deka metra boi (Gréigis)

Hmmm, “9-Meter achdeka metra“?  What’s a meter here or there when you’re talking about a “banfhathach” ([BAHN-AH-hukh], giantess)?

  1. Fiche Míle Léig faoi na Farraigí (1954, 1997). NB: sa Bhéarla, tá an focal “farraige” uatha, i.e. “under the sea,” ach sa Fhraincis agus sa Ghaeilge, tá an focal iolra, i.e. “sous les mers agus “faoi na farraigí.” Sin an Ghaeilge mar thagairt don leabhar — fad m’eolais, níl aistriúchán ann.).

 

 

Two Irish Words for ‘Foot': ‘cos’ vs. ‘troigh’

Posted on 04. Mar, 2015 by in Irish Language

(le Róislín)

In the last blog, we looked at the words for “inch” and “foot” (in measurements) in Irish (orlach and troigh).  Among other reasons for discussing these measurement terms, a lot of people have been talking about the depth of snow in Boston lately (thart fá chéad orlach ó thús an gheimhridh).  Even that doesn’t top some other record-breaking snowfalls, such as:

Cé chomh hard is atá an sneachta sa phictiúr seo, i do bharúil? I dtroithe nó in orlaigh nó i méadair nó i gceintiméadair -- roghnaigh do chóras tomhais féin!  Nó fiú in eileanna, más mian leat! (NB: ard: high, tall; chomh hard: as high/tall; Cé chomh hard: How high/tall). Pictiúr: By Gandydancer (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Cé chomh hard is atá an sneachta sa phictiúr seo, i do bharúil? I dtroithe nó in orlaigh nó i méadair nó i gceintiméadair — roghnaigh do chóras tomhais féin! Nó fiú in eileanna, más mian leat! (NB: ard: high, tall; chomh hard: as high/tall; Cé chomh hard: How high/tall). Pictiúr de shneachta i nDuluth, Minnesota, i ndiaidh stoirme i 2007: By Gandydancer (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Aomori, an tSeapáin, 21 Feabhra 2013: beagnach seacht dtroithe dhéag (5.15 méadar)

Tamarack, California, 11 Márta 1911: beagnach seacht dtroithe is tríocha  (11.5 méadar)

Mount Baker, Washington (baile / ionad saoire sciála): geimhreadh 1998-99, ocht dtroithe is nócha go leith (30 méadar)

Baile Sheáin (Baile Naomh Eoin), Talamh an Éisc, Ceanada: geimhreadh 2000-01, breis agus troigh agus fiche (6.48 méadar)

agus maidir le hEirinn, áit nach bhfaigheann méideanna sneachta mar sin de ghnáth:

 Aeradróm Mhic Easmainn (Casement Aerodrome), Baile Dhónaill, Baile Átha Cliath, Éire: 31 Mí na Nollag, 1962:  beagnach ocht n-orlaí déag, .i. troigh go leith  (0.45 méadar).  An cuimhin le duine ar bith agaibh é?

I have to acknowledge that the way some of these figures are recorded is ambiguous as to how long it took for that amount of snow to fall — was the figure cumulative, or in one specific snowfall?  But either way, the figures are very impressive.  Tuilleadh eolais faoi na titimí sneachta seo ag na hailt sa liosta nasc ag deireadh an bhlag seo.  

Céard faoi do cheantar féin?  What about your own area?  A lán sneachta i mbliana?  Gan sneachta ar bith (má tá tú i bhFlorida, mar shampla, a Sheancháin ámharaigh!)?  Scríobh isteach, le do thoil, agus inis dúinn cé mhéad sneachta a thit i do cheantar.

And now back to the main theme for today’s blog.  Remember, Irish has two basic words for “foot,” one usually for the body (cos) and one usually for measuring (troigh).  Here’s a review of these words, with some sample phrases:

 

cosa babaí -- nach gleoite iad!   (http://www.clipartbest.com/clipart-MiLKEA9ia)

cosa babaí — nach gleoite iad! (http://www.clipartbest.com/clipart-MiLKEA9ia)

cos [kuss], foot, leg (yes, there is that ambiguity); Níl cos ag Seán le cur faoi (Seán is very drunk, lit. Seán hasn’t got a foot/leg to put under him)

an chos [un khuss], the foot, the leg

coise [KwISH-uh], of a foot, of a leg; fad coise (leg length; NB: this is understood to be “leg” length basically by tradition; “fad troighe” may be used for “length of a foot,” despite “troigh” mostly being reserved for measurements)

na coise, of the foot, of the leg

cosa, feet, legs; cosa fuara (stilts); Tá a cosa nite (It’s all up with her, lit. “Her feet/legs are washed.”)

na cosa, the feet, the legs; Ná labhair leis na cosa má bhíonn an ceann sa láthair (Talk to the head, lit. “Don’t talk to the feet if the head is present”)

cos, of feet, of legs; folcadán cos (footbath, lit. “bath/tub of feet”)

na gcos, of the feet, of the legs; in aghaidh na gcos (feet first, lit. “in the face of the feet”)

And for “troigh,” we have:

troigh, a foot (mostly for measuring, these days); troigh ar fad (a foot in length)

an troigh, the foot

troighe, of a foot; síos go méara a troighe, down to her toes, lit. “down to the fingers of her feet” (using “troigh” in reference to the body, here)

na troighe, of the foot

troithe, feet (old spelling: troighthe, which shows the core of the word better, with the “-gh“); troithe an soicind, feet per second

na troithe, the feet

troithe, of feet

na dtroithe, of the feet

And here are a few interesting phrases with “cos,” “troigh,” or the adjective form “-chosach”  Can you match them up?  Watch for some that are parts of compound words, and for a couple of duplicates, as shown in the word bank.  Freagraí thíos (cuid “A”).

Banc Focal: a) -chosach  b) choise c) coise  d) coise e) cos  f) cos g) cos-  h) throigh  i) troigh j) troigh-

Frásaí:

1) ____  fuála

2) feall  _____  

3) ____  sipe  

4) sciomradh  _____  sliogairt 

5) bandacút muc-_____ 

6) stop ceithre  _____

7) lóis nua phúdair  _____  dhíbholaíoch féir líomóidigh 

8) diúilicín goiríneach  _____fhlannbhuí,

9) ________phunt

10) _____  stoca

And now a few “foot” phrases that don’t have the word “foot” in Irish.  An féidir leat iad a mheaitseáil?  Freagraí thíos (cuid “B”):

Gaeilge:  1) ciotóg  2) deasóg  3) bonnra  4) bonnchomhla 5) galar crúb is béil  6) crúibíneach  7) gé ghobghearr 

Béarla:  a) right-footed kicker  b) footing (of a wall)  c) left-footed kicker  d) foot-and-mouth disease  e) foot rot  f) pink-footed goose  g) foot valve

Tá súil agam gur bhain tú sult as sin.  SGF — Róislín

Naisc:

http://www.met.ie/climate-ireland/SnowfallAnal.pdf, Snowfall in Ireland, Aidan Murphy, Met Éireann, Glasnevin Hill, Dublin 9, November 2012

http://www.easternsnow.org/proceedings/2002/021_Whiffen.pdf, One for the History Books: The Winter of 2000-01 in St. John’s, Newfoundland, by Bruce Whiffen (59th Eastern Snow Conference, Stowe, Vermont, 2002)

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/mar/01/japan-record-snowfall-not-deepest-ever, Japan’s Record Snowfall Still Not the Deepest Ever, Stephen Moss, March 1, 20013

Freagraí “A”

1) cos fuála, sewing foot (for an inneall fuála)

2) feall coise, foot fault (i leadóg)

3)  cos sipe, zipper foot (don inneall fuála freisin)

4) sciomradh coise sliogairt; pumice foot scrub

5) bandacút muc-chosach, pig-footed bandicoot

6) stop ceithre throigh, four-foot stop (i gceol)

7) lóis nua phúdair choise dhíbholaíoch féir líomóidigh, new lemongrass deodorizing foot powder lotion (hmm, how is a púdar (powder) a lóis (lotion), well, ceist lá fearthainne!)

8) diúilicín goiríneach cosfhlannbhuí, orange-footed pimpleback (!) mussel,

9) troighphunt, foot-pound (téarma eolaíochta)

10) troigh stoca, vamp (front upper part of a stocking; in English, “vamp” is also used for shoes and boots, but in Irish this seems to simply be “uachtar” (“top part,” etc.).

Freagraí “B” — phrases that have “foot” in English but not the usual words for “foot” in Irish (cos, troigh):

1c) ciotóg, left-footed kicker

2a) deasóg, right-footed kicker

3b) bonnra, footing (of a wall)

4g) bonnchomhla, foot valve

5d) galar crúb is béil, foot-and-mouth disease, lit. “hoof-and-mouth disease”

6e) crúibíneach, foot rot

7f) gé ghobghearr, pink-footed goose, lit. “short-beaked goose” — so I guess the perspective on the goose is different, depending on language — foot type vs. beak type

Orlaí agus Troithe (Measurements in Irish in the ‘inches/feet’ system)

Posted on 28. Feb, 2015 by in Irish Language

(le Róislín)

Even though the world has become increasingly méadrach over the last half-century, there are still many reasons to use the words “inch” and “feet” in measuring, or at least to recognize them in older texts.

One main reason is that a few countries still use inches (orlaí), feet (troithe), and yards (slata), as the main unit of measurement, namely, Stáit Aontaithe Mheiriceá, Burma/Maenmar agus an Libéir.  A lot of other areas also have the córas impiriúil either i ngnáthúsáid na ndaoine or for feidhmeanna áirithe (mar shampla, airde eitleán  agus “piontaí beorach” in ionad “leathlítir”).

Another reason is simply that as the weather seems to get increasingly stranger, it seems we’re constantly talking about the depth of snow or the amount of rainfall or the sea level, all around the world.  Even if you’re in a metric country, it’s good to have a sense of what seven feet of snow is like, for example, if you’re talking to a relative i mBostún, i mbliana (2015) ar a laghad.  Or what difference a 2-inch increase in the water level means sa Bhanglaidéis.

In today’s blog, we’ll look at the words “orlach” (inch) and “troigh” (foot, in measuring).  Both have the special forms that are used with certain units of measurement in Irish.  Some of the other words with this same system are “bliain,” “uair,” “seachtain,” and “pingin,” and in slightly older terminology, “scilling.”

Counting years and hours are typically taught even before basic measuring, so you might remember such patterns as:

bliain amháin (one year), dhá bhliain, trí bliana … seacht mbliana, where the special ending “-ana” is used.  Sampla: Tá mo mhadra ceithre bliana d’aois.

or

uair amháin (one hour OR one time), dhá uair, trí huaire … seacht n-uaire, where the special ending “-e” is used.  Sampla: Bhí mé ar rollchostóir dhá uair i mo shaol (agus b’fhuath liom é) ach bhí m’fhear céile ar rollchostóir naoi n-uaire, b’fhéidir, agus ní miste leis ar chor ar bith é.

Remember, most nouns in Irish simply stay singular after numbers, so these special “units of measurements” features don’t apply at all to the vast majority of situations.  But they do apply to “year,” “hour,” “week” and “penny,” all quite important vocabulary words, as well as to “orlach” and “troigh.”

So how about those “orlaí” agus “troithe“?  Almost there, just let me mention one more thing, that unlike English, where “foot” can be used for measuring or for the “foot” of the body, the Irish word “troigh” (foot) is almost exclusively used for measuring.  A completely different word, “cos,” is  usually used when talking about the body. Having said that, it seems there’s a resurgence of “troigh” for the body these days as well, since “cos” can also mean “leg.”  Ach sin ábhar blag eile.  Our concern here is simply “foot” for measuring.

Before we actually start counting inches and feet, let’s look at the full set of forms for each word:

orlach, inch

an t-orlach, the inch

orlaigh, of an inch

orlaí, inches

na horlaí, the inches

na n-orlach, of the inches (admittedly, probably a little challenging to find a practical application for that phrase)

And for “foot,” we have:

troigh, a foot (mostly for measuring)

an troigh, the foot

na troighe, of the foot (“fad na troighe,” mar shampla)

troithe, feet (used to be spelled “troighthe, which showed the original ending)

na troithe, the feet

na dtroithe, of the feet

Now let’s put “orlach” and “troigh” with numbers and see what happens:

orlach amháin, no real issue here, just like a normal noun

dhá orlach, still no change, just the regular process

trí horlaí, ceithre horlaí, cúig horlaí, sé horlaí (3 through 6 inches; the ending looks plural, but technically isn’t plural, it’s just “special,” and we have the h-prefix, as we did with uair / sé huaire, etc., because both “orlach” and “uair” start with a vowel

seacht n-orlaí, ocht n-orlaí, naoi n-orlaí, deich n-orlaí (7 through 10 inches; special ending plus “n-” to “eclipse” the vowel)

And for feet:

troigh amháin

dhá throigh

trí troithe, ceithre troithe, cúig troithe, sé troithe (3 through 6 feet, special ending and note there’s NO lenition, as opposed to say “cúig theach” or “sé thobar,” which have the usual lenition)

seacht dtroithe, ocht dtroithe, naoi dtroithe deich dtroithe (7 through 10 feet, special ending, plus the usual eclipsis)

For phrases like “twenty inches” or “twenty feet,” we’re back to the basic form, since multiples of ten don’t cause mutations in Irish:

fiche orlach

fiche troigh

Finally, having said all that, let me add that this special system is very widely used, but it’s not absolute.  In some areas, inches, feet, years, hours, etc. are counted like regular nouns.  In that case, just stick to the singular forms and follow the normal lenition, h-prefixing, and eclipsis rules.  As one example,  I just happened to notice the phrase, “diosca trí horlach go leith,” a “floppy” disk size which admittedly I haven’t used in years, though I have boxes of them somewhere.

As for the whole issue of metric conversion in the US, it seems the phrase “a liter bottle of Coke” or “a 2-liter bottle of Pepsi” has taken root, but not much else, except in scientific contexts.  I wonder why the terminology for soft drinks converted so quickly.  Ach sin ábhar blag eile, nó b’fhéidir ábhar blag taobh amuigh den tsraith seo ar fad.

Hmmm, so thinking metrically, “A half-liter of ‘Plain’ is your only man”?  Paraphrasing the popular refrain from the great Irish writer Flann O’Brien’s poem, “The Workingman’s Friend.”  Or, for that matter, how about “568 milliliters of ‘Plain’ are your only man?”  Nó do “phionta” sa chóras Meiriceánach, “475 milliliters of ‘Plain’ are your only man” — do bharúilBíodh cuimhne agat, ní hionann an pionta impiriúil agus an pionta sna “US customary units” mar a thugtar ar an gcóras tomhais atá in úsáid i Meiriceá.  Tá an pionta impiriúil níos mó ná an pionta Meiriceánach.

Agus an “Plain” sa chomhthéacs seo?  Pionta “stout” (leann dubh) atá i gceist ag Flann O’Brien ina dhán.  Is é sin a rá, pionta Guinness.

Well, that’s some food for thought, especially since there’s supposed to be a “ceapaire” (sandwich), in every glass of Guinness, nutritionally!  Mianraí, and all that!   SGF – Róislín