Origin of Urdu and Hindi in India

Posted on 26. Feb, 2015 by in Uncategorized

Urdu and Hindi are two variants of the same language. Although they are relatively the same language, they have two distinct writing systems. Both Urdu and Hindi have the same language origins. They came from the Indo-European and Indo-Aryan language families. Both languages are derived from Sanskrit. Because of this they have the same Indic base and have similar phonology and grammar. They also share the same region (South Asia) where they are predominately spoken. The main difference between the two languages is their association. Hindi is a language used and spoken by Hindi people, the native and leading population of India. On the other hand, Urdu is associated with Pakistan and Muslims.

Hindi is mostly spoken in India and serves as its national language. The same goes for Urdu in Pakistan where it is a national language. In addition, Urdu is also spoken in India as a state official language. Both languages are spoken by its population in countries outside of India and Pakistan.

Both Hindi and Urdu contain influences of Persian, Arabic, and Turkic. However, the percentage differs in each language. Urdu has a lot of foreign influences and loanwords while Hindi has a lower application of the same foreign vocabularies. The two languages share many common words and lexicons from native, Arabic, Persian, and the English language.

In Hindi and Urdu, there are only two forms for gender (male and female). In terms of grammar, the verbs fall after the subject. Also, verbs agree with objects not the subjects. At the colloquial level, speakers of both Urdu and Hindi can understand each other. However, the political vocabulary and highbrow level of both languages are completely different.

The Urdu writing system is called Nastaliq. It involves some Persian and Arabic script. Nastaliq is written from right to left. On the other hand, Hindi uses the Devanagari script. Its written form is the opposite of Nastaliq, from left to right.

The British occupation aggravated the rift between Hindi and Urdu and in extension the Hindi and Muslims. This led to the division of India and the creation of Pakistan in 1947. Attempts were made to reconcile both the languages and countries but failed. The combination of both Urdu and Hindi led to the creation of Hindustani– a Sanskrit-based language with 30-40 per cent Persian and Arabic influences.

Hindi and Urdu are considered to be the national language of their respective countries, but it is often not the native language of its people. Both Hindi and Urdu are taught in school due to their status as official languages. In India, both Hindi and Urdu have an agency that regulates the language; meanwhile, Urdu is the only language being regulated in Pakistan.

 

Versions of Urdu Language

Posted on 24. Feb, 2015 by in Uncategorized

Urdu language being one of the vastest languages of the world enjoys four basic versions or dialects. These include Dakhni, Rekhta, Modern Vernacular and Khariboli. Khariboli being the dialect of Delhi region is far different from the Dakhni dialect, which is spoken in the southern region of India. Dakhni is popularly known as Dakani, Deccani, Desia or Mirgan.

Dakhini is popularly spoken in many parts of India including Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Overall Urdu is being read, written and spoken in all parts of India and Pakistan. Most of the states in India even publish daily newspapers and other magazines in Urdu.

Dakhni dialect is known for its mixture with Marathi and Telugu Language in India. The base of Urdu lies in Arabic, Persian and Turkish. The native speakers of Urdu can easily be recognized from their accents, they enjoy a beautiful accent while their identity is the pronunciation of “kaf” and “Kh” sounds.

Urdu language deviation spoken in the territory of Pakistan: it becomes gradually more divergent from the Indian dialects and structure of Urdu, since it has engrossed many words, proverbs and phonetics from the regional languages like Pashto, Punjabi, Sindhi and Balochi. The pronunciation pattern of Urdu language also differs in Pakistan and the cadence and lilt are informal compared with corresponding Indian dialects.

Furthermore, Rekhta, the poetic version of Urdu, is mostly classified as a separate dialect. This dialect was famously used by several British Indian poets of high acclamation, in the immensity of their work. These included the great Mirza Ghalib, the enormous Mir Taqi Mir and mammoth Muhammad Iqbal, who is the national poet and philosopher of Pakistan.

Glossary of Urdu Terms in a Kitchen

Posted on 22. Feb, 2015 by in Uncategorized

This blog highlights various foods and ingredients in Urdu with their English translation:

aaloo =Potato
aata =Wheat flour
namak = salt
anardana=Dried pomegranate seeds
adrak =Ginger
bhindi =Ladyfinger/Okra
baigan =Eggplant
besin =Chick Pea Flour
bhagar =Temper
bund Gobi=Cabbage
chukundar=Beetroot
channa =Chick pea
dhuniya =Coriander
daal =Lentil
daal cheeni =Cinnamon
Gobi =Cauliflower
gaihoN =Wheat
haldi =Turmeric
hari mirch =Green chili
hari piyaz =Spring onion
imli =Tamarind
illaichi =Cardamom
jaifal =Nutmeg
jaw =Barley
kaali mirch =Black pepper
kaddoo =Pumpkin
kaloNji =Onion seed
kalaiji =LiverLasun =Garlic
Laung =Clove
methi =Fenugreek
matar =Peas
maida =White flour
mooli =Radish
palak =Spinach
piyaz =Onion
podina =Mint
rayii =Mustard seed
sabuth Laal Mirch =Whole Red Chili
Saunf =Aniseed
Shaljam =Turnip
Savaiyan =Vermicelli
Sujji =Semolina
Shimla mirch =Bell Peppers/Capsicum
Tez path =Bayleaf
Torri =Zucchini
Zeera =Cumin Seeds

 

naan = bread
chapaatee = without oil round shaped bread
paratha = oily thick bread
rotee = bread
rotiyaan = breads
dahee = yougurt
chahe = tea
paani = water
paneer= chees
anda = egg
ande = eggs
murghii = chicken
gosht = meat
chaval = rice
biryaani = rice with souce of meat/beaf/chicken/potato and anything else
aaloo = potato
chota gosht = meat
bara gosht = beaf
salaad = salad
doodh = milk
aata = flour
makkhan= butter
shorbah = gravy
hara masalah = green vegetable
podeenah = mint
dhanyah = coriander
kabaab = cutlet
aam = mango
jamun = jambolana
maalta = orange
kela = banana
annan-naas = pineapple
tarbooz= watermelon
aaroo = peach
anaar = pomegranate
ganna= sugar cane
angoor = grapes
leemoon = lemon
melon = Kharbooz
papita = pawpaw
nashpati = pear
amrood = guava
sangtra = tangerine
injeer = figs
shareefa = custard apple
khajoor = dates
naariyal = coconut
naariyal paani = coconut juice
matar = peas
lady finger = bhindi / bhindiyaan’
gobii = cabbage
phaliyaan = beans
shimla mirch=capsicum
kheera = cucumber
torii = courgette
kaddu= gourd
TimaTar = tomato
shakkar = sugar
cheenii = sugar
pyaaz = onion
palak = spinach
karela= bitter gourd
gajar = carrot
kavvaa = bitter
meetha = sweet
mitayii = sweet
sharbat = juice
sabziyaan = vegitables