Urdu in the Mughal Era

Posted on 04. Dec, 2014 by in Uncategorized

While the Mughal Emperors from Akbar to Aurangzeb were strong rulers, having control over large parts of India, their successors, the later Mughals, who ruled from 1707 (when Aurangzeb died) to 1857 (when the last Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah  Zafar,  was  deposed), were mere phantoms or shadows of the departed glory of their ancestors.  These later Mughals were Emperors only in name, they were in fact pauperized, they had lost their Empire to the British, the Marathas, and their Governors, who had really became independent rulers (like the Nawabs of Awadh or Nizam of Hyderabad). In their reign the court language gradually ceased to be Persian and instead became Urdu.

Why did the court language which was Persian in the reign of the great Mughals become Urdu in the reign of the later Mughals?  This was because the later Mughals were not real Emperors but had become nearer to commoners or paupers with all the difficulties of the common man.  Hence they had to take recourse to a language nearer the common man.  Why then did their court language not become Khariboli, which was the language of the common man in the cities?  That was because these later Mughals, and their Lieutenants, the Nawabs and Wazirs, while having become pauperized retained their dignity, culture and self respect.  They still prided themselves in being Shahzade-Timuria i.e. descendants of Timur, the great conqueror, (who was Babar’s grandfather’s great-grandfather) and descendants of the great Mughals.  Thus despite having become paupers they were not prepared to be treated as commoners.  Hence while they gave up Persian and adopted Khariboli, this was not the Khariboli of the common man but Khariboli of a special type, borrowing from the sophistication, polish and culture of the Persian language.  In other words they spoke a Khariboli which was coupled with the graceful features, sophistication and some vocabulary of Persian.

Urdu thus became the language of aristocrats who had become pauperized, but who retained their dignity, pride and respect.

Directions, Days-Time, Adjectives and Weather Info in Urdu

Posted on 02. Dec, 2014 by in Uncategorized

I’m looking for .. Mey .. talash kar raha hoo
Where is ..? .. kaha hey?
How do I get to ..? .. mujhe kaha se mille ga?
Can I walk there? Kiya mey vaha tak chal kar ja sakta hoo?
Is there a bus? Koy bus mil sakti hey?
Is there a train? Koy rail mil sakti hey?
Is it far? Kiya ye door hey?
Can you show me on the map? Kiya app nakshe per dikha sakte hey?
Is there a bus station nearby? Kiya nazdeek koy bus station hey?
Is there a train station nearby? Kiya nazdeek koy railway station hey?
Turn to the left Bayin muro
Turn to the right Dayin muro
here yaha
there vaha
on the right hand side dayin taraf per
on the left hand side bayin taraf per
at the end of the street gali ke ichketam per
to the left bayin taraf
to the right dayin taraf
straight on seedha agay
in front of kay samney
behind peechay
Days/Time Info:
this week is hafte
next week aglay hafte
yesterday kal
today aaj
tomorrow kal
this morning iss subah
this afternoon iss dopahar
tonight aaj raat
in the morning subah may
in the afternoon dopahar may
in the evening shaam may
At what time? kiss vakt
midday dopahar
midnight adhi raat
Adjectives:
good achha
bad bura
hot garm
cold tanda
young javan
old boorha
fast teiz
slow aahista
clean saaf
dirty ganda
Weather related info:
What’s the weather like? Mosam kesa hey?
Is it going to rain? Kiya barish honey vali hey?
It’s raining Barish ho rahi hey
It’s hot Garmi hey
It’s cold Sardi hey
It’s nice Payara mosam hey
It’s cloudy Abr alood mosam hey
It’s freezing Shadeed tand hey
It’s windy Tez hava chal rahi hey
It’s rainy Barish ka mosam hey

Pakistani Culture 101

Posted on 27. Nov, 2014 by in Uncategorized

cultural tips

cultural tips 2