Basics of Arabic Grammar Posted by Fisal on Jan 20, 2016 in Arabic Language, Grammar, Pronunciation, Vocabulary
- Ahlan, Arabic lovers! Today, we will go back to the basics for some refreshment.
- Arabic العربية is like any other language. It is a means وسيلة of expressionتعبير and communication تواصُل. It consists of letters حروف that make up words كلمات, phrases عبارات and sentences جُمل.
- Any speech كلام that consist of two, three or more words with a complete تام sense is called a meaningful sentence جملة.
- To write or say a correct sentence, one needs to learn the different parts of speech and the function وظيفة of each.
The Arabic sentence:
There are two main sentences in Arabic. They are:
- The Nominal Sentence الجملة الاسمية which starts with a noun اسم.
Ex.: The book is beautiful. الكتابُ جميلٌ
- The Verbal Sentence الجملة الفعلية which starts with a verb فعل.
Ex.: The car progressed. تقدمتْ السيارة
(Note: All English statements start with a Noun. So, the Arabic verbal sentence doesn’t exist in English)
Arabic speech is made up of different words like these:
– Omar عمر /Omar/ – father أب /ub/
– mother أم /om/ – son ابن /ibn/
– rose وردة /wardah/ – tree شجرة /sha’jarah/
– chair كرسى /korsi/ – dog كلب /kalb/
– love الحُبّ /al-hubb/ – death الموت /al-mawt/
– beautiful جميل /jameel/ – tall طويل /taweel/
– walk يمشى /yamshi/ – run يجرى /yagree/
– write يكتب /yaktob/ – sleep ينام /yanaam/
– in فى /fii/ – on على /ala/
– but لكن /lakin/ – how كيف /kayfa/
Arabic Parts of Speech أقسام الكلام:
There are three main categories of Arabic speech (words):
(1) The Noun الاسم /Al-ism/ is a name اسم /ism/ of something that can be realized by the mind or by the senses and that Time الزمن /Az’zaman/ is not part of. Nouns have determiners or markers that distinguish them from other words.
Ex.: – boy ولد /walad/ – cat قط /qitt/ – justice عدل /adl/
– river نهر /nahr/ – book كتاب /kitaab/ – pen قلم /qalam/
(2) The Verb الفعل /Al-fi’ll/ is what refers to something happening and the Time is part of. Verbs have determiners or markers that distinguish them from other words.
Ex.: – thanked شكرَ /shakara/ – wrote كتب /kataba/
– runs يجرى /yajree/ – sleeps ينام /yanam/
(3) The Particle الحرف /Al-harf/ which is neither a noun nor a verb and which is meaningful only if joined with other speech. The particle is distinguished because it can’t have a noun or a verb determiner or marker.
Ex.: – from من /min/ – to إلى /ela/ – or أو /aw/
- For more grammar posts, go to our Index of Arabic Grammar
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Peace سـلام / Salam/
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Thank you Fisal, this is very helpful.