Egypt ; A Story of Struggle Posted by Fisal on Mar 13, 2011 in Arabic Language, Culture, Grammar, Uncategorized, Vocabulary
Since the time of the Pharaohs الفراعنة, Egypt مصر was never ruled by a native Egyptian; except for the last sixty years. Along history التاريخ it hasn’t known any democratic regime نظام ديمقراطى in the sense of what modern democracy means. The welfare of the people depended mainly on the desire of its rulers which can be explained as the dictatorship of the individual دكتاتورية الفرد .
The Egyptian people الشعب المصرى by nature are so peaceful and tolerant with any ruling regime as long as they have a margin of decent and fair living conditions أحوال معيشية. Some time before the American Civil War حرب أهلية , Mohammad Ali founded Modern Egypt and started its reform إصلاح and renaissance نهضة . His successors followed in his footsteps. The construction of the Suez canal قناة السويس was both a blessing نعمة and a mixed blessing نقمة . It revived the economy إقتصاد but led to foreign intervention التدخل الأجنبى which ended with the British occupation إحتلال ; a thing that the Egyptians consider an offence to their pride.
The struggle النضال against invasion started with Orabi’s Revolution ثورة عرابى in 1882 and continued with the 1919 Revolution and ended with the 1952 Revolution which turned Egypt to a republic جمهورية with the first native Egyptian; Mohammad Nageeb on its head.
A year later Nassir came to power السلطة and with his charismatic capabilities and eloquent speeches خطابته البليغة , he inspired the people who adored him. However, one turning point of Nassir’s rule was when he asked the International Bank البنك الدولى to support him build the High Dam السد العالى , but the Americans refused and as a result, he declared the Nationalization تأميم of the Suez Canal and became and ally حليف of Russia that agreed to carry out the huge project مشروع . Nassir made so many enemies أعداء from the west leading to foreign intervention again which ended with the Israeli invasion of Sinai غزو سيناء. However, he gained love and respect from inside Egypt as he died poor and clean-handed.
Sadat; the third president رئيس ; adopted other policies. He was cunning with strategic mind and vision. He led the October war in 1973 and restored Sinai from Israel. He turned to be an ally of the west and signed the Peace Treaty إتفاقية السلام with Israel. He adopted very open policies and set a constitution دستور and allowed some freedom حرية for political parties even to the extremists who assassinated him in 1981.
Mubarak was the vice president of Sadat, so he was the Fourth president. He was in power for longer than his predecessors. He managed to keep Egypt away from getting involved in cross-borders conflicts صراعات but failed to achieve any kind of political or economical reform. That is why his rule حكم ended in such a dramatic way; Revolution!!
Next time, we will read another article about Modern Egypt under Mubarak.
Check us back soon
Peace سلام / Salam/
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Muhammad Ali (d. 1849) did not undertake his reforms during the American Civil War, which began in 1861.
Also, if I may comment on the phrase, “His successors followed his footprints,” we say in English, followed in his “footsteps.”
@David Dear David,
Thank you very much for your kind remarks. My little article is now updated.