The Nominal Sentence: The Subject (Al-Mubtada) Posted by Fisal on Nov 20, 2011 in Arabic Language, Grammar, Vocabulary
As we said before that the first item of the nominal sentence is the Subject or Al-Mubtada المبتدأ which is the noun that we talk about. This noun is always in the Nominative (Marfoo’) Case. Now what are the types of the Subject (Mubtada) ?
Types of the Mubtada أنواع المبتدأ
The Mubtada can be any of the types of the following words:
1) A Plain Noun اسم صريح : The Mubtada can be a clear noun;
e.g. – محمدٌ كريمٌ = Mohammad is generous.
– الطالبُ مجتهدٌ = The student is hard-working.
– الشجرةُ كبيرةٌ = The tree is big.
2) A Pronoun ضمير : The Mubtada can be a (subject) pronoun;
e.g. – أنا مسافرٌ = I am traveling. Or – I am a traveler.
– هو كريمٌ = He is generous.
– هم مجتهدون = They are hard-working.
3) A Demonstrative Noun (particle) اسم إشارة :
e.g. – هذا أديبٌ = This is a scholar.
– هؤلاء شعراءٌ = These are poets.
– هذه شجرةٌ = That is a tree.
4) A Relative Noun اسم موصول :
e.g. – الذي فاز بالجائزة طالبٌ = (He) who won the prize is a student.
– ما قلته صحيحٌ = What I said is right.
5) An Interrogative Noun (Particle) اسم استفهام :
e.g. – من فاز بالسباق ؟ = Who won the race?
– ما اسمُك ؟ = What is your name?
6) A Conditional Noun (Particle) اسم استفهام :
e.g. – منْ يذاكر , ينجح = (He) who studies, will succeed.
– إذا جريتَ , ستلحق القطار. = If you run, you will catch the train.
7) To + Infinitive مصدر مؤول :
e.g. – أن تنام مبكراً , خيرٌ لك . = To sleep early is better for you.
– أن تشرب اللبن مفيدٌ لصحتك = To drink milk is useful to your health.
(Note 1 : In general, the Mubtada should start the sentence, however in a few cases, it can be delayed and the predicate comes first)
(Note 2 : The Mubtada can be deleted from the sentence if it is understood or if there is an evidence that refers to it or makes it clear like when you give a short answer to a question.)
( Note 3 : The general rule is that the Mubtada is a definite noun. However, in some other cases it can be an indefinite noun.)
* Next time, we will look at the Predicate (Al-Khabar) in more detail.
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Peace سلام / Salam/
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