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Verbal morphology II Posted by on Jun 10, 2012 in Latin Language

Active voice

Time characteristics of time and mood for active personal forms are:

 

PRESENT TENSE

Indicative

Subjunctive

Imperative

Present

1st conjugation:

-e-

2nd, 3rd, 4th
conjugations:

-a-

Past imperfect

-ba-

-re-

Future

1st & 2nd conjugations:

-b-

3rd, 4th conjugations

1st singular person:

-a-

Rest of persons:

-e-

 

The imperative has no temporal morphemes, but has special personal endings that make it unique to any other mode:

Present imperative:

  • 2nd person singular: it has no morpheme or personal ending, so it is like the present form. I.e. Ama (from the verb amare).
  • 2nd person plural: -te personal ending. I.e. Amate.

Future imperative:

  • 2nd and 3rd person singular: -to personal ending. I.e. Amato.
  • 2nd person plural: -tote personal ending. Amatote.
  • 3rd person plural: -nto personal ending. Amanto.

 

 PERFECT TENSE

Indicativo

Subjuntivo

Perfect

(See personal endings)

-eri-

Pluperfect

-era-

-isse-

Future perfect

-ero
(1st pers. sing.)

-eri-

 

Passive voice

The personal forms of the Latin passive voice have two ways of creating them: one for the present system, and one for the perfect.

 

Present system Perfect system
The formation of tenses is made with the same morphemes as in the active voice, but with passive personal endings.

-r

-ris (-re)

-tur

-mur

-mini

-ntur

 

It is formed with the perfect participle of the conjugated verb +SUM in the corresponding present or perfect tense.

(See conjugation below)

 

 

INDICATIVE

 

SUBJUNCTIVE

 

PERFECT

 

amatus,
-a, -um

 

sum (fui)

 

es (fuisti)

 

est (fuit)

 

amatus,
-a, -um

 

sim (fuerim)

 

sis (fueris)

 

sit (fuerit)

 

 

amati,
-ae, -a

 

 

sumus (fuimus)

 

estis (fuistis)

 

sunt
(fuerunt)

 

 

amati,
-ae, -a

 

 

simus (fuerimus)

 

sitis (fueritis)

 

sint
(fuerint)

 

PLUPERFECT

 

amatus,
-a, -um

 

eram (fueram)

 

eras (fueras)

 

erat (fuerat)

 

amatus,
-a, -um

 

essem (fuissem)

 

esses (fuisses)

 

esset (fuisset)

 

 

amati,
-ae, -a

 

 

eramus (fueramus)

 

eratis (fueratis)

 

erant
(fuerant)

 

 

amati,
-ae, -a

 

 

essemus (fuissemus)

 

essetis (fuissetis)

 

essent
(fuissent)

 

FUTURE PERFECT

 

amatus,
-a, -um

 

ero (fuero)

 

eris (fueris)

 

erit (fuerit)

 

 
 

amati,
-ae, -a

 

 

erimus (fuerimus)

 

eritis (fueritis)

 

erunt
(fuerint)

 

 

 

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