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20 Common Verbs in Arabic with Examples Posted by on Sep 28, 2017 in Grammar, Language, Vocabulary

In a previous post, you learned how to make a basic verbal sentence*, a sentence that is essentially composed of فِعْل ‘a verb’ and فَاعِل ‘a subject’*, and whatever follows is called a complement. The complement can be مَفْعُول ‘an object’*, شِبْهُ جُمْلَة ‘a prepositional phrase’*, or حَال ‘an adverb’*. In this post, you will enhance and automatize your ability of sentence formation via looking at more examples using 20 common Arabic verbs in meaningful sentences.

Image by Mohamed Khatab on flickr.com

1-  verb + subject فِعْل + فَاعِل     

2-  verb + subject + objectفِعْل + فَاعِل + مَفْعُول 

3-  verb + subject + prepositional phraseفِعْل + فَاعِل + شِبْهُ جُمْلَة      

4-  verb + subject + adverbفِعْل + فَاعِل + حَال 

The list is alphabetical, and next to each verb is the number(s) of the category to which it belongs.

the present sentence  الجُمْلَة—مُضَارِع the past sentence  الجُمْلَة—مَاضٍ the verb  الفِعْل  
يَتَّصِل المُدِيْر بِالمُوَظَّف.

yattaSil al-mudiir bil-muwaDDaf.

‘the boss calls/is calling the employee.’

اِتَّصَلَ المُدِيْر بِالمُوَظَّف.

ittaSala al-mudiir bil-muwaDDaf.

‘The boss called the employee’.

اِتَّصَلَ بِـ / لِـ   3

ittaSala bi- / li-

‘to call’

-1
يَأكُل جُوْن التُّفَّاحَة.

ya’kul John at-tuffaHah

‘Johns eats/is eating the apple.’

أَكَلَ جُوْن التُّفَّاحَة.

’akala John at-tuffaHah

‘John ate the apple.’

أَكَلَ  2

’akala

‘to eat’

-2
يَتَعَشَّى مُحَمَّد.

yata‘ashaa MuHammed

Mohammed has/is having dinner.

يَتَعَشَّى مُحَمَّد بَيْض / بَيْضًا.

yata‘ashaa Mohammed bayDh

Mohammed has eggs for dinner.

تَعَشَّى مُحَمَّد.

ta‘asha MuHammed

Mohammed had dinner.

تَعَشَّى مُحَمَّد بَيْض / بَيْضًا.

ta‘ashaa Mohammed bayDh

Mohammed had eggs for dinner.

تَعَشَّى  1    2

ta‘asha

‘to have dinner’

-3
يَتَغَدَّى المُوَظَّفُوْن.

yataghadda al-muwaDDafuun

‘the employees have/are having lunch.’

تَغَدَّى المُوَظَّفُوْن.

taghadda al-muwaDDafuun

‘the employees had lunch.’

تَغَدَّى   1   2

taghadda

‘to have lunch’

-4
يُجَاوِب الطَّالِب عَنِ السًّؤَال.

yujaawib aT-Taalib ‘an as-suual

‘the student answers/is answering the Q.

جَاوَبَ الطَّالِب عَنِ السُّؤَال.

jaawaba aT-Taalib ‘an as-suual

‘the student answered the question.’

جَاوَبَ عَنْ   3

jaawaba

‘to answer’

-5
يَجْلِس الضِّيُوف فِي المَجْلِس.

yajlis aDHiyuuf fii al-majlis

‘the guests sit in the sitting room.’

تَقْعُد سَارَة عَلَى الكُرْسِي.

taq‘ud sarah ‘alaa al-kursii.

‘Sarah sits on the chair.’

جَلَسَ الضِّيُوف فِي المَجْلِس.

jalasa aDHiyuuf fii al-majlis

‘the guests sat in the sitting room.’

قَعَدَتْ سَارَة عَلَى الكُرْسِي.

qa‘adat sarah ‘alaa al-kursii

‘Sarah Sat on the chair.’

جَلَسَ / قَعَدَ (عَلَى / فِي)   3

jalasa/qa‘ada

‘to sit (on /in)

-6
يَخْرُج جُوْن وَجَاك مِنَ المَطْعَم.

jakhruj juun wa jaak min al-mat‘am

John and Jack leave the restaurant.

خَرَجَ جُوْن وجَاك مِنَ المَطْعَم.

kharaja juun wa jaak min almaT‘am

John and Jack left the restaurant.

خَرَجَ مِنْ   3

kharaja min

‘to go out (from)/leave’

-7
يَدْخُل الطًّلاب الصَّف.

yadkhul aT-Tullaab aS-Saff

‘the students enter the classroom.’

دَخَلَ الطًّلاب الصَّف.

dakhala aT-Tullaab aS-Saff

‘the students entered the class.’

دَخَلَ  2

dakhala

‘to enter’

-8
أَذْهَب إلى السًّوْق كُلَّ يَوْم.

’adhhab ilaa as-suuq kulla yaum.

‘I go to the market every day.’

ذهَبْتُ إلى السًّوْق أَمْس.

dhahabtu ilaa as-suuq ams

‘I went to the market yesterday.’

ذَهَبَ إِلَى   3

dhahaba ilaa

‘to go to’

-9
يَرِدّ صَدِيقِي عَلَى رِسَالتِي دَائِمًا.

yaridd Sadiiqii ‘alaa risaalatii daa’iman

‘my friend always replies to my letter.’

رَدَّ صَدِيقِي عَلَى رِسَالَتِي.

radda Sadiiqii ‘alaa risaalatii

‘my friend replied to my letter.’

رَدَّ عَلَى   3

radda ‘alaa

‘to reply to’

-10
نَسِيْر إِلَى السًّوْق (بالسيَارة).

nasiir ilaa as-suuq (bil-ssayyarh)

‘we go to the market by car.’

سِرْنَا إِلَى السًّوْق (بِالسَّيَّارَة)

sirnaa ilaa as-suuq (bil-ssayyarah)

‘we went to the market by car.’

سَارَ (إلى)  3

saara ilaa

‘to go (to)’

-11
تُسَافِر إِلَى هُنَا!

tusaafir ilaa hunaa!

‘you travel up to here!’

سَافَرْتَ إِلَى هُنَا!

saafarta ilaa hunaa!

‘you travelled up to here!’

سَافَرَ (إِلَى)  3

saafara (ilaa)

‘to travel (to)’

-12
يَسْأل الطًّلاب أَسْئِلَة جَيِّدَة.

yas’al aT-Tullaab ’as’ilah jayyidah

‘the students ask good questions.’

سَأل الطُّلاب أّسْئِلَة جَيِّدَة.

sa’ala aT-Tullaab ’as’ilah jayyidah

‘the students asked good questions.’

سَأَلَ  2

sa’ala

‘to ask’

13-
أَسْمَع صَوتَ السَّيَّارَات (ِفِي الشَّارِع).

’sma‘ Saut as-sayyaaraat fii ashaari‘

‘I hear cars noise in the street.’

سَمِعْـتُ صَوْت السَّيَّارَات (فِي الشَّارِع).

sami‘tu Saut as-sayyaaraat fii ashaari‘

‘I heard cars noise in the street.’

سَمِعَ   2

sami‘a

‘to hear’

-14
أَشَاهِد فِيْلم / فِيْلْمًا (كُلَّ أُسْبُوع).

’ushaahid fiilm (kulla ’usbuu‘)

‘I watch a film every week.’

شَاهَدْتُ فِيْلْم / فِيْلْمًا (أَمْس).

shaahadtu fiilm (’ams)

‘I watched a film yesterday.’

شَاهَدَ   3

shaahada

‘to watch’

-15
نَشْرَب القَهْوة (كُلَّ صَبَاح).

nashrab al-qahwah (kulla SabaaH)

‘we drink coffee every morning.’

شَرِبْــنَا القَهْوَة (بَعْدَ العَشَاء).

sharibnaa al-qahwah ba‘da al-‘asha’a

‘we drank coffee after dinner.’

شَرِبَ   2

shariba

‘to drink’

-16
يُصَّلِي المُسْلِمُون الجُمْعَة (فِي جَمَاعَة).

yuSallii al-muslimuun al-jum‘ah (fii jamaa‘ah)

‘the Muslims pray Friday prayer in congregation.’

صَلَّى المُسْلِمُون الجُمْعَة (فِي جَمَاعَة).

Sallaa al-muslimuun al-jum‘ah (fii jamaa‘ah)

‘the Muslims prayed Friday prayer in congregation. ‘

صَلَّى   1    2

Sallaa

‘to pray’

-17
يَقُوْم الوَلَد.

yaquum al-walad

‘the boy stands.’

يَقِفْ الكَلْب عَلَى السًّوْر.

yaqif al-kalb ‘alaa as-suur

‘the dog is standing up on the fence.’

تَقُوْم البِنْت مَسْرُوْرَة.

taquum al-bint masruurah

‘the girl stands happily.’

قَامَ الوَلَد.

qaam al-walad

‘the boy stood up.’

وَقَفَ الكَلْب عَلَى السُّوْر.

waqafa al-kalb ‘alaa as-suur

‘the dog stood up on the fence.’

قَامَتْ البِنْت مَسْرُوْرَة.

qaamat al-bint masruurah

‘the girl stood happily.’

قَامَ / وَقَفَ    1    3    4

qama / waqafa

‘to stand’ / ‘to stand up’

-18
أَلْبَس بِذْلَة (اليوم).

albas bidhlah al-yaum

‘I am wearing a suit (today).’

لَبِسْـتُ بِذْلَةَ.

labistu bidhlah

‘I wore a suit.’

لِبِسَ    2

labisa

‘to wear’

-19
يَنَام الطِّفْل.

yanaam aT-Tifl

‘the boy sleeps.’

يَنَام الطِّفْل مُبْتَسِمًا.

yanaam aT-Tifl mubtasiman

‘the little boy sleeps smiling(ly).’

نَامَ الطِّفْل.

naama aT-Tifl

‘the little boy slept.’

نَامَ الطِّفْل مُبْتَسِمًا.

naama aT-Tifl mubtasiman

‘the little boy slept smiling.’

نَامَ / رَقَدَ     1     4

naama / raqada

‘to sleep’

-20

Grammar Glossary:

  • جُمْلَة فِعْلِيَّة ‘a verbal sentence’: the sentence that starts with a verb
  • فَاعِل ‘a subject’: the doer/agent of the action
  • مَفْعُوْل ‘an object’: the receiver of the action
  • شِبْه جُمْلَة ‘a prepositional phrase’: two or more words in which the main word is a preposition
  • حَالَ ‘an adverb’: a word that describes the how the action happens (the manner).

Notes on Usage:

  • In category (1), the sentence is completely meaning with its two essential parts, the verb and the subject. Verbs under this category are called لازِم ‘intransitive’.
  • In category (2), the sentence is not sufficiently meaningful without an object, that is it is essential that the object be added. Verbs under this category are called مُتَعَدِّي ‘transitive’.
  • In category (3), the verb needs حَرْفُ جَرّ ‘a preposition’ to reach its object. In other word, it cannot reach the object directly. the ‘preposition + noun’ is called شِبْه جُمْلَة ‘a prepositional phrase’. Verbs under this category are called ‘semi-transitive’, i.e. through a preposition.
  • In category (4), the حَالَ ‘adverb’ is not entirely essential; rather, it just adds more meaning to the action and the doer by describing the manner of it.
  • As you can see certain verbs can be classified under more than one category. This is based on the context.

Pronunciation Key:

S = ص                   D = ظ                           H = ح                           T = ط

DH = ض                ’ = ء                             ‘ = ع                            kh = خ

dh = ذ                     y = ي                          

underlined letters = double sound of the same type (a geminate)

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About the Author:Ibnulyemen

Marhaban! I am from Yemen. I am a language teacher. I teach English and Arabic. Besides Arabic and English, I speak French and some German. I have a strong flair for languages; most of my foreign language competency has been self-learning. For Arabic, I have a strong command of its formal aspects. So, if you have any question about Arabic grammar or morphology, feel free to ask any question you may have. In this blog, I will be leading you through Arabic language learning in a sequential and interactive fashion. I will focus on Modern Standard Arabic. Arabic dialectal expressions and vocabulary will be highlighted whenever pertinent to the topic of each post. Enjoy learning!


Comments:

  1. Nazim uddin:

    Excellent teaching